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AUTHOR: “Jordan Zoot.  “aBIZinaBOX Inc., CPA’s”
PUBLISHER:  CANNABIS LAW REPORT

 

Numerous attempts to introduce legislation to relax the provisions that placed cannabis on Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act [“CSA”] have been made beginning in 1981[i].

Similar bills have been introduced perennially since then, most recently by Rep. H. Morgan Griffith [R-VA] (H.R. 4498).

All have died in committee. In 2011, Reps. Ron Paul (R-TX) and Barney Frank (D-MA) introduced a bill to remove marijuana from the schedules entirely (“de-scheduling”). This Bill also died in committee[ii].

Our understanding of the background of “re-scheduling” is that there are two paths that could be taken: a “legislative path” through Congress; and an “administrative path” through the Executive Branch. Both paths are complex processes in which scientific, medical, policy and political forces have influence.

In a nutshell, administrative rescheduling begins when an actor—the Secretary of Health and Human Services or an outside interested party—files a petition with the Attorney General. The Attorney General can also initiate the process. The Attorney General forwards the request to the Health and Human Services Secretary and requests a scientific and medical evaluation and recommendation, as specified by 23 USC 811(b-c). HHS, through the Food and Drug Administration, conducts an assessment and returns a recommendation to the Attorney General “in a timely manner.”

The Attorney General, often through the Drug Enforcement Administration, conducts its own concurrent and independent review of the evidence in order to determine whether a drug should be scheduled, rescheduled, or removed from control entirely—depending on the initial request in the petition.

If the Attorney General finds sufficient evidence that a change in scheduling is warranted, she then initiates the first stages of a standard rulemaking process in accordance with the Administrative Procedures Act. During rulemaking and consistent with Executive Order 12866, if the White House—through the Office of Management and Budget’s Office of information and Regulatory Affairs—determines the rule to be “significant,” it will conduct a regulatory review of the proposed rule—a very likely outcome given the criteria set forth in the Executive Order.

At the present time, state medical and recreational legalization have no impact on federal drug control laws.

Although many states have chosen to legalize medical marijuana and four have legalized recreational use, such state actions continue to conflict with federal law.

There are other avenues Congress can take besides rescheduling marijuana to ameliorate the seeming breakdown in federalism brought about by federal marijuana policy.

Congress could pass a law that would legitimate marijuana activities, but only to the extent an individual or commercial enterprise acts within the letter of state law. This approach is essentially the approach embodied in the “Cole Memo”[iii]

The catch-22 in the rescheduling debate is that keeping marijuana as a Schedule I drug severely restricts the capacity for scientists to study its potential medical benefits while the lack of scientific research on medical use is concurrently offered as evidence for keeping marijuana as a Schedule I drug.

If nothing else, the Surgeon General’s statements open up the possibility that the administration might make real moves for medical testing in this area—which in and of itself is a big step for marijuana advocates. (It is worth noting that Marinol ® (dronabinol) is an FDA-approved synthetic cannabinoid that was placed in Schedule III under the CSA in 1999.)

The DEA has made previous requests–in 2001 and 2006–to the FDA for an evaluation of marijuana. These requests were the results of public petitions requesting a rescheduling as FDA Deputy Director Doug Throckmorton explained in testimony delivered during a congressional hearing last year. But DEA regulators determined after both of those reviews that marijuana should remain a Schedule I substance. The FDA cited insufficient available research about marijuana’s effectiveness in treating a number of ailments as the justification for continuing marijuana as a Schedule I drug.

While in an ideal world the FDA, DEA, and Attorney General would make their determinations about marijuana scheduling solely based on scientific, medical, and policy considerations, reality is quite different. Such determinations very likely will be made by presidential appointees and others who are sensitive to political considerations.

The politics relating to rescheduling through administrative processes are unfavorable. It was not a policy priority of the Obama administration. The present administration through Attorney General Sessions revoked the Cole Memo in January 2018[iv].

In the 115th session of Congress, S. 3032 and H.R. 6043 identical bills were introduced with the short title:

“Strengthening the Tenth Amendment Through Entrusting States Act”

or the

“STATES Act.”

These bills purport to address the aforementioned problems by amending the CSA to change the application of the CSA to cannabis-related activity. The bills provide:

 

“Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the provisions of this title as applied to marihuana, other than the provisions described in subsection (c) and other than as provided in subsection (d), shall not apply to any person acting in compliance with State law relating to the manufacture, production, possession, distribution, dispensation, administration, or delivery of marihuana.” (Emphasis added).

Subject to the express exceptions delineated in the STATES Act, “any person acting in compliance with State law relating to the manufacture, production, possession, distribution, dispensation, administration, or delivery of marihuana” would not be in violation of the CSA. State-compliant cannabis activity would no longer violate federal criminal law. Trafficking in cannabis in compliance with state law will no longer constitute a predicate act to establish violations of other federal criminal laws under the CSA, in particular financial crimes such as money laundering laws.

 

Section 5 – Rules of Construction of the STATES Act provides

“(1) shall not be unlawful;

(2) shall not constitute trafficking in a controlled substance under section 401 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 841[v]) or any other provision of law; and

(3) shall not constitute the basis for forfeiture property under section 511 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 881[vi]) or section 981 of title 18, United States Code.”

If the preceding is not enough for even the most hardened skeptic, the STATES Act contains one final provision that specifically addresses the interaction of the STATES Act with the principal money laundering statutes by providing that:

“The proceeds from any transaction in compliance with this Act and the amendments made by this Act shall not be deemed to be the proceeds of an unlawful transaction under section 1956[vii] or 1957[viii] of title 18, United States Code, or any other provision of law.”

There are some that would contend that the language in Section 5 of the STATES Act is sufficient to change the results under both the banking provisions which we have previously discussed and the draconian tax consequences of 26 USC 280E which states:

“No deduction or credit shall be allowed for any amount paid or incurred during the taxable year in carrying on any trade or business if such trade or business (or the activities which comprise such trade or business) consists of trafficking in controlled substances (within the meaning of schedule I and II of the Controlled Substances Act) which is prohibited by Federal law or the law of any State in which such trade or business is conducted.[ix]

 

Compare the preceding to paragraph “(2) shall not constitute trafficking in a controlled substance under section 401 of the Controlled Substances Act (21U.S.C. 841) or any other provision of [federal] law;” with the addition of one word of clarification which is wholly unnecessary because a federal statute must be interpreted as referring to federal statutes.

We remain concerned that all will not agree. We are concerned because the STATES Act seeks to amend Title 21 of the United States Code [“USC] to eliminate the application of federal criminal statutes to state-compliant cannabis business activities for the benefit of the financial services industry.

An argument can be easily stated that the clear language in the STATES Act causes state-compliant cannabis business activity to no longer constitute a “prohibited” activity under Federal law or the law of any State.

We believe that the legislation proposed in STATES Act should not continue this ambiguity.

Specifically, either “cannabis” must be removed from CSA Schedules I and II, or 26 USC 280E must be amended the section not applicable to state-complaint cannabis business activities described in STATES Act.

————————————————————————————————————————-

[i] H.R. 4498 -97th Congress [1981-1981] proposed:

Introduced in House (09/16/1981)

“Amends the Controlled Substances Act to establish in the Department of Health and Human Services the Office for the Supply of Internationally Controlled Drugs, to be responsible for regulating the domestic production of marihuana and the distribution of marihuana for medical, scientific, and research purposes.

Establishes procedures for the production of medicinal marihuana.

Permits the distribution of medicinal marihuana only to hospitals and pharmacies registered to dispense Schedule II controlled substances for the purposes of treating glaucoma or the nausea of cancer patients or research approved under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.”

[ii] See How to reschedule marijuana, and why it’s unlikely anytime soon, The Brookings Institution [2015]

[iii]Deputy Attorney General James Cole summarized cannabis related financial crimes in a February 14, 2014 memorandum:

 

“The provisions of the money laundering statutes, the unlicensed money remitter statute, and the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) remain in effect with respect to marijuana-related conduct. Financial transactions involving proceeds generated by marijuana-related conduct can form the basis for prosecution under the money laundering statutes (18 U.S.C. §§ 1956 and 1957), the unlicensed money transmitter statute (18 U.S.C. § 1960), and the BSA. Sections 1956 and 1957 of Title 18 make it a criminal offense to engage in certain financial and monetary transactions with the proceeds of a “specified unlawful activity,” including proceeds from marijuana-related violations of the CSA.

Transactions by or through a money transmitting business involving funds “derived from” marijuana related conduct can also serve as a predicate for prosecution under 18 U.S.C. § 1960. Additionally, financial institutions that conduct transactions with money generated by marijuana-related conduct could face criminal liability under the BSA for, among other things, failing to identify or report financial transactions that involved the proceeds of marijuana-related violations of the CSA. See, e.g., 31 U.S.C. § 5318(g). Notably for these purposes, prosecution under these offenses based on transactions involving marijuana proceeds does not require an underlying marijuana-related conviction under federal or state law.

 

  • Preventing the distribution of marijuana to minors;
  • Preventing revenue from the sale of marijuana from going to criminal enterprises, gangs, and cartels;
  • Preventing the diversion of marijuana from states where it is legal under state law in some form to other states;
  • Preventing state-authorized marijuana activity from being used as a cover or pretext for the trafficking of other illegal drugs or other illegal activity;
  • Preventing violence and the use of firearms in the cultivation and distribution of marijuana;
  • Preventing drugged driving and the exacerbation of other adverse public health consequences associated with marijuana use;
  • Preventing the growing of marijuana on public lands and the attendant public safety and environmental dangers posed by marijuana production on public lands; and
  • Preventing marijuana possession or use on federal property.

 

These priorities will continue to guide the Department’s enforcement of the CSA against marijuana-related conduct. Thus, this memorandum serves as guidance to Department attorneys and law enforcement to focus their enforcement resources and efforts, including prosecution, on persons or organizations whose conduct interferes with any one or more of these priorities, regardless of state law.”

[iv] In a January 4, 2018 memorandum regarding cannabis enforcement, U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions summarized the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) as it relates to cannabis and the other crimes that may be triggered by violating the CSA. Sessions wrote

“In the Controlled Substances Act, Congress has generally prohibited the cultivation, distribution, and possession of marijuana. 2 1 U.S.C. § 801 et seq. It has established significant penalties for these crimes. 2 1 U.S.C. § 841 el seq. These activities also may serve as the basis for the prosecution of other crimes, such as those prohibited by the money laundering statutes, the unlicensed money transmitter statute, and the Bank Secrecy Act. 18 U.S.C. §§ 1956-57, 1960; 3 1 U.S.C. § 53 18. These statutes reflect Congress’s determination that marijuana is a dangerous drug and that marijuana activity is a serious crime.”

[v] 21 USC 841 states

 

(a)Unlawful actsExcept as authorized by this subchapter, it shall be unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally—

(1) to manufacture, distribute, or dispense, or possess with intent to manufacture, distribute, or dispense, a controlled substance; or

(2)to create, distribute, or dispense, or possess with intent to distribute or dispense, a counterfeit substance.

 

(b)PenaltiesExcept as otherwise provided in section 849, 859, 860, or 861 of this title, any person who violates subsection (a) of this section shall be sentenced as follows:

 

(1)

(A)In the case of a violation of subsection (a) of this section involving—

 

(i)1 kilogram or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of heroin;

 

(ii)5 kilograms or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of—

 

  • coca leaves, except coca leaves and extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed;

 

  • cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers;

 

  • ecgonine, its derivatives, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers; or

 

  • any compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of any of the substances referred to in subclauses (I) through (III);

 

(iii) 280 grams or more of a mixture or substance described in clause (ii) which contains cocaine base;

 

(iv) 100 grams or more of phencyclidine (PCP) or 1 kilogram or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of phencyclidine (PCP);

 

(v) 10 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD);

 

(vi) 400 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of N-phenyl-N-[ 1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl ] propanamide or 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of any analogue of N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl] propanamide;

 

(vii) 1000 kilograms or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of marihuana, or 1,000 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight; or

 

(viii)50 grams or more of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, and salts of its isomers or 500 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, or salts of its isomers;

 

such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 10 years or more than life and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be not less than 20 years or more than life, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $10,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $50,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 20 years and not more than life imprisonment and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to life imprisonment, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $20,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $75,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits a violation of this subparagraph or of section 849, 859, 860, or 861 of this title after two or more prior convictions for afelony drug offense have become final, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory term of life imprisonment without release and fined in accordance with the preceding sentence. Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence under this subparagraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 5 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 10 years in addition to such term of imprisonment. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall not place on probation or suspend the sentence of any person sentenced under this subparagraph. No person sentenced under this subparagraph shall be eligible for parole during the term of imprisonment imposed therein.

 

(B)In the case of a violation of subsection (a) of this section involving—

 

(i)100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of heroin;

 

(ii)500 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of—

 

(I)coca leaves, except coca leaves and extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed;

 

(II)cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers;

 

(III)ecgonine, its derivatives, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers; or

 

(IV)any compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of any of the substances referred to in subclauses (I) through (III);

 

(iii)28 grams or more of a mixture or substance described in clause (ii) which contains cocaine base;

 

(iv)10 grams or more of phencyclidine (PCP) or 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of phencyclidine (PCP);

 

(v)1 gram or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD);

 

(vi)40 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of N-phenyl-N-[ 1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl ] propanamide or 10 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of any analogue of N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl] propanamide;

 

(vii)100 kilograms or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of marihuana, or 100 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight; or

 

(viii)5 grams or more of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, and salts of its isomers or 50 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, or salts of its isomers;

 

such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 5 years and not more than 40 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be not less than 20 years or more than life, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $5,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $25,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 10 years and not more than life imprisonment and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to life imprisonment, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $8,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $50,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence imposed under this subparagraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, include a term of supervised release of at least 4 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, include a term of supervised release of at least 8 years in addition to such term of imprisonment. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall not place on probation or suspend the sentence of any person sentenced under this subparagraph. No person sentenced under this subparagraph shall be eligible for parole during the term of imprisonment imposed therein.

 

(C) In the case of a controlled substance in schedule I or II, gamma hydroxybutyric acid (including when scheduled as an approved drug product for purposes of section 3(a)(1)(B) of the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Drug Prohibition Act of 2000), or 1 gram of flunitrazepam, except as provided in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (D), such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 20 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than twenty years or more than life, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $1,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $5,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for afelony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 30 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to life imprisonment, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $2,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $10,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this paragraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 3 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 6 years in addition to such term of imprisonment. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall not place on probation or suspend the sentence of any person sentenced under the provisions of this subparagraph which provide for a mandatory term of imprisonment if death or serious bodily injury results, nor shall a person so sentenced be eligible for parole during the term of such a sentence.

 

(D) In the case of less than 50 kilograms of marihuana, except in the case of 50 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight, 10 kilograms of hashish, or one kilogram of hashish oil, such person shall, except as provided in paragraphs (4) and (5) of this subsection, be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 5 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $250,000 if the defendant is an individual or $1,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, suchperson shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 10 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $500,000 if the defendant is an individual or $2,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this paragraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 2 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 4 years in addition to such term of imprisonment.

 

(E)

 

(i)Except as provided in subparagraphs (C) and (D), in the case of any controlled substance in schedule III, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 10 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 15 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $500,000 if the defendant is an individual or $2,500,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both.

 

(ii)If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 20 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 30 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $1,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $5,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both.

 

(iii)Any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this subparagraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 2 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 4 years in addition to such term of imprisonment.

 

(2)In the case of a controlled substance in schedule IV, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 5 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $250,000 if the defendant is an individual or $1,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such personshall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 10 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $500,000 if the defendant is an individual or $2,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this paragraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least one year in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 2 years in addition to such term of imprisonment.

 

(3)In the case of a controlled substance in schedule V, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than one year, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $100,000 if the defendant is an individual or $250,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 4 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $200,000 if the defendant is an individual or $500,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this paragraph may, if there was a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of not more than 1 year, in addition to such term of imprisonment.

 

(4)Notwithstanding paragraph (1)(D) of this subsection, any person who violates subsection (a) of this section by distributing a small amount of marihuana for no remuneration shall be treated as provided in section 844 of this title and section 3607 of title 18.

 

(5)Any person who violates subsection (a) of this section by cultivating or manufacturing a controlled substance on Federal property shall be imprisoned as provided in this subsection and shall be fined any amount not to exceed—

 

(A)the amount authorized in accordance with this section;

 

(B)the amount authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18;

 

(C)$500,000 if the defendant is an individual; or

 

(D)$1,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual;or both.

 

(6)Any person who violates subsection (a), or attempts to do so, and knowingly or intentionally uses a poison, chemical, or other hazardous substance on Federal land, and, by such use—

 

(A)creates a serious hazard to humans, wildlife, or domestic animals,

 

(B)degrades or harms the environment or natural resources, or

 

(C)pollutes an aquifer, spring, stream, river, or body of water,

shall be fined in accordance with title 18 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

 

(7)Penalties for distribution.—

 

(A)In general.—Whoever, with intent to commit a crime of violence, as defined in section 16 of title 18 (including rape), against an individual, violates subsection (a) by distributing a controlled substance or controlled substance analogue to that individual without that individual’s knowledge, shall be imprisoned not more than 20 years and fined in accordance with title 18.

 

(B)Definition.— For purposes of this paragraph, the term “without that individual’s knowledge” means that the individual is unaware that a substance with the ability to alter that individual’s ability to appraise conduct or to decline participation in or communicate unwillingness to participate in conduct is administered to the individual.

 

(c)Offenses involving listed chemicalsAny person who knowingly or intentionally—

 

(1)possesses a listed chemical with intent to manufacture controlled substance except as authorized by this subchapter;

 

(2)possesses or distributes a listed chemical knowing, or having reasonable cause to believe, that the listed chemical will be used to manufacture controlled substance except as authorized by this subchapter; or

 

(3)with the intent of causing the evasion of the recordkeeping or reporting requirements of section 830 of this title, or the regulations issued under that section, receives or distributes a reportable amount of any listed chemical in units small enough so that the making of records or filing of reports under that section is not required;

 

shall be fined in accordance with title 18 or imprisoned not more than 20 years in the case of a violation of paragraph (1) or (2) involving a list I chemical or not more than 10 years in the case of a violation of this subsection other than a violation of paragraph (1) or (2) involving a list I chemical, or both.

 

(d)Boobytraps on Federal property; penalties; “boobytrap” defined

 

(1)Any person who assembles, maintains, places, or causes to be placed a boobytrap on Federal property where a controlled substance is being manufactured, distributed, or dispensed shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment for not more than 10 years or fined under title 18, or both.

 

(2)If any person commits such a violation after 1 or more prior convictions for an offense punishable under this subsection, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 20 years or fined under title 18, or both.

(3)

 

For the purposes of this subsection, the term “boobytrap” means any concealed or camouflaged device designed to cause bodily injury when triggered by any action of any unsuspecting person making contact with the device. Such term includes guns, ammunition, or explosive devices attached to trip wires or other triggering mechanisms, sharpened stakes, and lines or wires with hooks attached.

 

(e)Ten-year injunction as additional penalty

In addition to any other applicable penalty, any person convicted of a felony violation of this section relating to the receipt, distribution, manufacture, exportation, or importation of a listed chemical may be enjoined from engaging in any transaction involving a listed chemical for not more than ten years.

(f)Wrongful distribution or possession of listed chemicals

 

(1)Whoever knowingly distributes a listed chemical in violation of this subchapter (other than in violation of a recordkeeping or reporting requirement of section 830 of this title) shall, except to the extent that paragraph (12), (13), or (14) of section 842(a) of this title applies, be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both.

 

(2)Whoever possesses any listed chemical, with knowledge that the recordkeeping or reporting requirements of section 830 of this title have not been adhered to, if, after such knowledge is acquired, such person does not take immediate steps to remedy the violation shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

 

(g)Internet sales of date rape drugs

 

(1)Whoever knowingly uses the Internet to distribute a date rape drug to any person, knowing or with reasonable cause to believe that—

 

(A)the drug would be used in the commission of criminal sexual conduct; or

 

(B)the person is not an authorized purchaser; shall be fined under this subchapter or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.

 

(2)As used in this subsection:

 

(A)The term “date rape drug” means—

 

(i)gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) or any controlled substance analogue of GHB, including gamma butyrolactone (GBL) or 1,4–butanediol;

 

(ii)ketamine;

 

(iii)flunitrazepam; or

 

(iv)any substance which the Attorney General designates, pursuant to the rulemaking procedures prescribed by section 553 of title 5, to be used in committing rape or sexual assault.

 

The Attorney General is authorized to remove any substance from the list of date rape drugs pursuant to the same rulemaking authority.

 

(B)The term “authorized purchaser” means any of the following persons, provided such person has acquired the controlled substance in accordance with this chapter:

 

(i)person with a valid prescription that is issued for a legitimate medical purpose in the usual course of professional practice that is based upon a qualifying medical relationship by a practitioner registered by the Attorney General. A “qualifying medical relationship” means a medical relationship that exists when the practitioner has conducted at least 1 medical evaluation with the authorized purchaser in the physical presence of the practitioner, without regard to whether portions of the evaluation are conducted by other heath[1]professionals. The preceding sentence shall not be construed to imply that 1 medical evaluation demonstrates that a prescription has been issued for a legitimate medical purpose within the usual course of professional practice.

 

(ii)Any practitioner or other registrant who is otherwise authorized by their registration to dispense, procure, purchase, manufacture, transfer, distribute, import, or export the substance under this chapter.

 

(iii)person or entity providing documentation that establishes the name, address, and business of the person or entity and which provides a legitimate purpose for using any “date rape drug” for which a prescription is not required.

 

(3)

The Attorney General is authorized to promulgate regulations for record-keeping and reporting by persons handling 1,4–butanediol in order to implement and enforce the provisions of this section. Any record or report required by such regulations shall be considered a record or report required under this chapter.

 

(h)Offenses involving dispensing of controlled substances by means of the Internet

 

(1)In general It shall be unlawful for any person to knowingly or intentionally—

 

(A)deliverdistribute, or dispense controlled substance by means of the Internet, except as authorized by this subchapter; or

 

(B)aid or abet (as such terms are used in section 2 of title 18) any activity described in subparagraph (A) that is not authorized by this subchapter.

 

(2)Examples Examples of activities that violate paragraph (1) include, but are not limited to, knowingly or intentionally—

 

(A)delivering, distributing, or dispensing a controlled substance by means of the Internet by an online pharmacy that is not validly registered with a modification authorizing such activity as required by section 823(f) of this title(unless exempt from such registration);

 

(B)writing a prescription for a controlled substance for the purpose of delivery, distribution, or dispensation by means of the Internet in violation of section 829(e) of this title;

 

(C)serving as an agent, intermediary, or other entity that causes the Internet to be used to bring together a buyer and seller to engage in the dispensing of a controlled substance in a manner not authorized by sections[2]823(f) or 829(e) of this title;

 

(D)offering to fill a prescription for a controlled substance based solely on a consumer’s completion of an online medical questionnaire; and

 

(E)making a material false, fictitious, or fraudulent statement or representation in a notification or declaration under subsection (d) or (e), respectively, of section 831 of this title.

 

(3)Inapplicability

 

(A)This subsection does not apply to—

 

(i)the delivery, distribution, or dispensation of controlled substances by nonpractitioners to the extent authorized by their registration under this subchapter;

 

(ii)the placement on the Internet of material that merely advocates the use of a controlled substance or includes pricing information without attempting to propose or facilitate an actual transaction involving a controlled substance; or

 

(iii)except as provided in subparagraph (B), any activity that is limited to—

 

(I)the provision of a telecommunications service, or of an Internet access service or Internet information location tool (as those terms are defined in section 231 of title 47); or

 

(II)the transmission, storage, retrieval, hosting, formatting, or translation (or any combination thereof) of a communication, without selection or alteration of the content of the communication, except that deletion of a particular communication or material made by another person in a manner consistent with section 230(c) of title 47 shall not constitute such selection or alteration of the content of the communication.

 

(B) The exceptions under subclauses (I) and (II) of subparagraph (A)(iii) shall not apply to a person acting in concert with a person who violates paragraph (1).

 

(4)Knowing or intentional violation

Any person who knowingly or intentionally violates this subsection shall be sentenced in accordance with subsection (b).

(Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §401, Oct. 27, 197084 Stat. 1260Pub. L. 95–633, title II, §201, Nov. 10, 197892 Stat. 3774Pub. L. 96–359, §8(c), Sept. 26, 198094 Stat. 1194Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§224(a), 502, 503(b)(1), (2), Oct. 12, 198498 Stat. 2030, 2068, 2070; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §§1002, 1003(a), 1004(a), 1005(a), 1103, title XV, §15005, Oct. 27, 1986100 Stat. 3207–2, 3207–5, 3207–6, 3207–11, 3207–192; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §§6055, 6254(h), 6452(a), 6470(g), (h), 6479, Nov. 18, 1988102 Stat. 4318, 4367, 4371, 4378, 4381; Pub. L. 101–647, title X, §1002(e), title XII, §1202, title XXXV, §3599K, Nov. 29, 1990104 Stat. 4828, 4830, 4932; Pub. L. 103–322, title IX, §90105(a), (c), title XVIII, §180201(b)(2)(A), Sept. 13, 1994108 Stat. 1987, 1988, 2047; Pub. L. 104–237, title II, §206(a), title III, §302(a), Oct. 3, 1996110 Stat. 3103, 3105; Pub. L. 104–305, §2(a), (b)(1), Oct. 13, 1996110 Stat. 3807Pub. L. 105–277, div. E, §2(a), Oct. 21, 1998112 Stat. 2681–759Pub. L. 106–172, §§3(b)(1), 5(b), 9, Feb. 18, 2000114 Stat. 9, 10, 13; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title III, §3005(a), title IV, §4002(d)(2)(A), Nov. 2, 2002116 Stat. 1805, 1809; Pub. L. 109–177, title VII, §§711(f)(1)(B), 732, Mar. 9, 2006120 Stat. 262, 270; Pub. L. 109–248, title II, §201, July 27, 2006120 Stat. 611Pub. L. 110–425, §3(e), (f), Oct. 15, 2008122 Stat. 4828, 4829; Pub. L. 111–220, §§2(a), 4(a), Aug. 3, 2010124 Stat. 2372.)

 

[vi] 21 USC 881 states

 

(a)Subject propertyThe following shall be subject to forfeiture to the United States and no property right shall exist in them:

 

(1)All controlled substances which have been manufactured, distributed, dispensed, or acquired in violation of this subchapter.

 

(2)All raw materials, products, and equipment of any kind which are used, or intended for use, in manufacturing, compounding, processing, delivering, importing, or exporting any controlled substance or listed chemical in violation of this subchapter.

 

(3)All property which is used, or intended for use, as a container for property described in paragraph (1), (2), or (9).

 

(4)All conveyances, including aircraft, vehicles, or vessels, which are used, or are intended for use, to transport, or in any manner to facilitate the transportation, sale, receipt, possession, or concealment of property described in paragraph (1), (2), or (9).

 

(5)All books, records, and research, including formulas, microfilm, tapes, and data which are used, or intended for use, in violation of this subchapter.

 

(6)All moneys, negotiable instruments, securities, or other things of value furnished or intended to be furnished by any person in exchange for a controlled substance or listed chemical in violation of this subchapter, all proceeds traceable to such an exchange, and all moneys, negotiable instruments, and securities used or intended to be used to facilitate any violation of this subchapter.

 

(7)All real property, including any right, title, and interest (including any leasehold interest) in the whole of any lot or tract of land and any appurtenances or improvements, which is used, or intended to be used, in any manner or part, to commit, or to facilitate the commission of, a violation of this subchapter punishable by more than one year’s imprisonment.

 

(8)All controlled substances which have been possessed in violation of this subchapter.

 

(9)All listed chemicals, all drug manufacturing equipment, all tableting machines, all encapsulating machines, and all gelatin capsules, which have been imported, exported, manufactured, possessed, distributed, dispensed, acquired, or intended to be distributed, dispensed, acquired, imported, or exported, in violation of this subchapter or subchapter II.

 

(10)Any drug paraphernalia (as defined in section 863 of this title).

 

(11) Any firearm (as defined in section 921 of title 18) used or intended to be used to facilitate the transportation, sale, receipt, possession, or concealment of property described in paragraph (1) or (2) and any proceeds traceable to such property.

 

(b)Seizure procedures – Any property subject to forfeiture to the United States under this section may be seized by the Attorney General in the manner set forth in section 981(b) of title 18.

 

(c)Custody of Attorney GeneralProperty taken or detained under this section shall not be repleviable, but shall be deemed to be in the custody of the Attorney General, subject only to the orders and decrees of the court or the official having jurisdiction thereof. Whenever property is seized under any of the provisions of this subchapter, the Attorney General may—

 

(1)place the property under seal;

 

(2)remove the property to a place designated by him; or

(3)require that the General Services Administration take custody of the property and remove it, if practicable, to an appropriate location for disposition in accordance with law.

 

(d)Other laws and proceedings applicable The provisions of law relating to the seizure, summary and judicial forfeiture, and condemnation of property for violation of the customs laws; the disposition of such property or the proceeds from the sale thereof; the remission or mitigation of such forfeitures; and the compromise of claims shall apply to seizures and forfeitures incurred, or alleged to have been incurred, under any of the provisions of this subchapter, insofar as applicable and not inconsistent with the provisions hereof; except that such duties as are imposed upon the customs officer or any other person with respect to the seizure and forfeiture of property under the customs laws shall be performed with respect to seizures and forfeitures of property under this subchapter by such officers, agents, or other persons as may be authorized or designated for that purpose by the Attorney General, except to the extent that such duties arise from seizures and forfeitures effected by any customs officer.

 

(e)Disposition of forfeited property

 

(1)Whenever property is civilly or criminally forfeited under this subchapter the Attorney General may—

 

(A)retain the property for official use or, in the manner provided with respect to transfers under section 1616a of title 19, transfer the property to any Federal agency or to any State or local law enforcement agency which participated directly in the seizure or forfeiture of the property;

 

(B)except as provided in paragraph (4), sell, by public sale or any other commercially feasible means, any forfeited property which is not required to be destroyed by law and which is not harmful to the public;

 

(C) require that the General Services Administration take custody of the property and dispose of it in accordance with law;

 

(D) forward it to the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs for disposition (including delivery for medical or scientific use to any Federal or State agency under regulations of the Attorney General); or

 

(E)transfer the forfeited personal property or the proceeds of the sale of any forfeited personal or real property to any foreign country which participated directly or indirectly in the seizure or forfeiture of the property, if such a transfer

 

 

(ii)is authorized in an international agreement between the United States and the foreign country; and

 

(iii)

is made to a country which, if applicable, has been certified under section 2291j(b) of title 22.

 

(2)

 

(A)The proceeds from any sale under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) and any moneys forfeited under this subchapter shall be used to pay—

 

(i)all property expenses of the proceedings for forfeiture and sale including expenses of seizure, maintenance of custody, advertising, and court costs; and

 

(ii)awards of up to $100,000 to any individual who provides original information which leads to the arrest and conviction of a person who kills or kidnaps a Federal drug law enforcement agent.

 

Any award paid for information concerning the killing or kidnapping of a Federal drug law enforcement agent, as provided in clause (ii), shall be paid at the discretion of the Attorney General.

 

(B)The Attorney General shall forward to the Treasurer of the United States for deposit in accordance with section 524(c) of title 28, any amounts of such moneys and proceeds remaining after payment of the expenses provided in subparagraph (A), except that, with respect to forfeitures conducted by the Postal Service, the Postal Service shall deposit in the Postal Service Fund, under section 2003(b)(7) of title 39, such moneys and proceeds.

 

(3)The Attorney General shall assure that any property transferred to a State or local law enforcement agency under paragraph (1)(A)—

 

(A)has a value that bears a reasonable relationship to the degree of direct participation of the State or local agency in the law enforcement effort resulting in the forfeiture, taking into account the total value of all property forfeited and the total law enforcement effort with respect to the violation of law on which the forfeiture is based; and

 

(B)will serve to encourage further cooperation between the recipient State or local agency and Federal law enforcement agencies.

 

(4)

 

  • With respect to real property described in subparagraph (B), if the chief executive officer of the State involved submits to the Attorney General a request for purposes of such subparagraph, the authority established in such subparagraph is in lieu of the authority established in paragraph (1)(B).

 

(B)In the case of property described in paragraph (1)(B) that is civilly or criminally forfeited under this subchapter, if the property is real property that is appropriate for use as a public area reserved for recreational or historic purposes or for the preservation of natural conditions, the Attorney General, upon the request of the chief executive officer of the State in which the property is located, may transfer title to the property to the State, either without charge or for a nominal charge, through a legal instrument providing that—

 

(i)such use will be the principal use of the property; and

 

(ii) title to the property reverts to the United States in the event that the property is used otherwise.

 

(f)Forfeiture and destruction of schedule I and II substances

 

(1)All controlled substances in schedule I or II that are possessed, transferred, sold, or offered for sale in violation of the provisions of this subchapter; all dangerous, toxic, or hazardous raw materials or products subject to forfeiture under subsection (a)(2) of this section; and any equipment or container subject to forfeiture under subsection (a)(2) or (3) which cannot be separated safely from such raw materials or products shall be deemed contraband and seized and summarily forfeited to the United States. Similarly, all substances in schedule I or II, which are seized or come into the possession of the United States, the owners of which are unknown, shall be deemed contraband and summarily forfeited to the United States.

 

  • The Attorney General may direct the destruction of all controlled substancesin schedule I or II seized for violation of this subchapter; all dangerous, toxic, or hazardous raw materials or products subject to forfeiture under subsection (a)(2) of this section; and any equipment or container subject to forfeiture under subsection (a)(2) or (3) which cannot be separated safely from such raw materials or products under such circumstances as the Attorney General may deem necessary.

 

(g)Plants

(1)All species of plants from which controlled substances in schedules I and II may be derived which have been planted or cultivated in violation of this subchapter, or of which the owners or cultivators are unknown, or which are wild growths, may be seized and summarily forfeited to the United States.

 

  • The failure, upon demand by the Attorney General or his duly authorized agent, of theperson in occupancy or in control of land or premises upon which such species of plants are growing or being stored, to produce an appropriate registration, or proof that he is the holder thereof, shall constitute authority for the seizure and forfeiture.

 

(4)The Attorney General, or his duly authorized agent, shall have authority to enter upon any lands, or into any dwelling pursuant to a search warrant, to cut, harvest, carry off, or destroy such plants.

 

(h)Vesting of title in United States

All right, title, and interest in property described in subsection (a) shall vest in the United States upon commission of the act giving rise to forfeiture under this section.

(i)Stay of civil forfeiture proceedings

The provisions of section 981(g) of title 18 regarding the stay of a civil forfeiture proceeding shall apply to forfeitures under this section.

(j)Venue In addition to the venue provided for in section 1395 of title 28 or any other provision of law, in the case of property of a defendant charged with a violation that is the basis for forfeiture of the property under this section, a proceeding for forfeiture under this section may be brought in the judicial district in which the defendant owning such property is found or in the judicial district in which the criminal prosecution is brought.

 

(l)[1] Agreement between Attorney General and Postal Service for performance of functions

 

The functions of the Attorney General under this section shall be carried out by the Postal Service pursuant to such agreement as may be entered into between the Attorney General and the Postal Service.

 

(Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §511, Oct. 27, 197084 Stat. 1276Pub. L. 95–633, title III, §301(a), Nov. 10, 197892 Stat. 3777Pub. L. 96–132, §14, Nov. 30, 197993 Stat. 1048Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§306, 309, 518, Oct. 12, 198498 Stat. 2050, 2051, 2075; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §§1006(c), 1865, 1992, Oct. 27, 1986100 Stat. 3207–7, 3207–54, 3207–59; Pub. L. 99–646, §74, Nov. 10, 1986100 Stat. 3618Pub. L. 100–690, title V, §5105, title VI, §§6059, 6074, 6075, 6077(a), (b), 6253, Nov. 18, 1988102 Stat. 4301, 4319, 4323–4325, 4363; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XII, §1215(a), Nov. 29, 1989103 Stat. 1569Pub. L. 101–647, title XX, §§2003, 2004, 2007, 2008, Nov. 29, 1990104 Stat. 4855, 4856; Pub. L. 102–239, §2, Dec. 17, 1991105 Stat. 1912Pub. L. 103–447, title I, §102(d), Nov. 2, 1994108 Stat. 4693Pub. L. 104–237, title II, §201(b), Oct. 3, 1996110 Stat. 3101Pub. L. 106–185, §§2(c)(2), 5(b), 8(b), Apr. 25, 2000114 Stat. 210, 214, 216; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §4002(e)(3), Nov. 2, 2002116 Stat. 1810.)

 

[vii] 18 USC 1956 states

(a)

 

(1)Whoever, knowing that the property involved in a financial transaction represents the proceeds of some form of unlawful activity, conducts or attempts to conduct such a financial transaction which in fact involves the proceeds ofspecified unlawful activity—

(A)

 

 

(ii)with intent to engage in conduct constituting a violation of section 7201 or 7206 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986; or

 

(B)knowing that the transaction is designed in whole or in part—

 

(ii)to avoid a transaction reporting requirement under State or Federal law,

shall be sentenced to a fine of not more than $500,000 or twice the value of the property involved in the transaction, whichever is greater, or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both. For purposes of this paragraph, a financial transaction shall be considered to be one involving the proceeds of specified unlawful activity if it is part of a set of parallel or dependent transactions, any one of which involves theproceeds of specified unlawful activity, and all of which are part of a single plan or arrangement.

 

(2)Whoever transports, transmits, or transfers, or attempts to transport, transmit, or transfer a monetary instrument or funds from a place in the United States to or through a place outside the United States or to a place in the United States from or through a place outside the United States

 

(A)with the intent to promote the carrying on of specified unlawful activity; or

 

(B)knowing that the monetary instrument or funds involved in the transportation, transmission, or transfer represent the proceeds of some form of unlawful activity and knowing that such transportation, transmission, or transfer is designed in whole or in part—

 

(i)

to conceal or disguise the nature, the location, the source, the ownership, or the control of the proceeds of specified unlawful activity; or

 

(ii)to avoid a transaction reporting requirement under State or Federal law,

shall be sentenced to a fine of not more than $500,000 or twice the value of the monetary instrument or funds involved in the transportation, transmission, or transfer, whichever is greater, or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both. For the purpose of the offense described in subparagraph (B), the defendant’s knowledge may be established by proof that a law enforcement officer represented the matter specified in subparagraph (B) as true, and the defendant’s subsequent statements or actions indicate that the defendant believed such representations to be true.

 

(3)Whoever, with the intent—

 

 

(B)to conceal or disguise the nature, location, source, ownership, or control of property believed to be the proceeds of specified unlawful activity; or

 

(C)to avoid a transaction reporting requirement under State or Federal law,

conducts or attempts to conduct a financial transaction involving property represented to be the proceeds of specified unlawful activity, or property used to conduct or facilitate specified unlawful activity, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for not more than 20 years, or both. For purposes of this paragraph and paragraph (2), the term “represented” means any representation made by a law enforcement officer or by another person at the direction of, or with the approval of, a Federal official authorized to investigate or prosecute violations of this section.

 

(b)Penalties.—

 

(1)In general.—Whoever conducts or attempts to conduct a transaction described in subsection (a)(1) or (a)(3), or section 1957, or a transportation, transmission, or transfer described in subsection (a)(2), is liable to the UnitedStates for a civil penalty of not more than the greater of—

 

(A)the value of the property, funds, or monetary instruments involved in the transaction; or

 

(B)$10,000.

 

(2)Jurisdiction over foreign persons.—For purposes of adjudicating an action filed or enforcing a penalty ordered under this section, the district courts shall have jurisdiction over any foreign person, including any financial institution authorized under the laws of a foreign country, against whom the action is brought, if service of process upon the foreign person is made under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure or the laws of the country in which the foreign person is found, and—

 

(A)the foreign person commits an offense under subsection (a) involving a financial transaction that occurs in whole or in part in the United States;

 

  • the foreign personconverts, to his or her own use, property in which the United States has an ownership interest by virtue of the entry of an order of forfeiture by a court of the United States; or

 

(C)the foreign person is a financial institution that maintains a bank account at a financial institution in the United States.

 

(3)Court authority over assets.—

A court may issue a pretrial restraining order or take any other action necessary to ensure that any bank account or other property held by the defendant in the United States is available to satisfy a judgment under this section.

 

(4)Federal receiver.—

 

(A)In general.—A court may appoint a Federal Receiver, in accordance with subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, to collect, marshal, and take custody, control, and possession of all assets of the defendant, wherever located, to satisfy a civil judgment under this subsection, a forfeiture judgment under section 981 or 982, or a criminal sentence under section 1957 or subsection (a) of this section, including an order of restitution to any victim of a specified unlawful activity.

 

(B)Appointment and authority.—A Federal Receiver described in subparagraph (A)—

 

(i)may be appointed upon application of a Federal prosecutor or a Federal or State regulator, by the court having jurisdiction over the defendant in the case;

 

(ii)shall be an officer of the court, and the powers of the Federal Receiver shall include the powers set out in section 754 of title 28, United States Code; and

 

(iii)shall have standing equivalent to that of a Federal prosecutor for the purpose of submitting requests to obtain information regarding the assets of the defendant—

 

(I)from the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network of the Department of the Treasury; or

 

(II) from a foreign country pursuant to a mutual legal assistance treaty, multilateral agreement, or other arrangement for international law enforcement assistance, provided that such requests are in accordance with the policies and procedures of the Attorney General.

 

(c)As used in this section—

 

(1)the term “knowing that the property involved in a financial transaction represents the proceeds of some form of unlawful activity” means that the person knew the property involved in the transaction represented proceeds from some form, though not necessarily which form, of activity that constitutes a felony under State, Federal, or foreign law, regardless of whether or not such activity is specified in paragraph (7);

 

(2) the term “conducts” includes initiating, concluding, or participating in initiating, or concluding a transaction;

 

  • the term “transaction” includes a purchase, sale, loan, pledge, gift, transfer, delivery, or other disposition, and with respect to a financial institutionincludes a deposit, withdrawal, transfer between accounts, exchange of currency, loan, extension of credit, purchase or sale of any stock, bond, certificate of deposit, or other monetary instrument, use of a safe deposit box, or any other payment, transfer, or delivery by, through, or to a financial institution, by whatever means effected;

 

(4)the term “financial transaction” means (A) a transaction which in any way or degree affects interstate or foreign commerce (i) involving the movement of funds by wire or other means or (ii) involving one or more monetary instruments, or (iii) involving the transfer of title to any real property, vehicle, vessel, or aircraft, or (B) a transaction involving the use of a financial institution which is engaged in, or the activities of which affect, interstate or foreign commerce in any way or degree;

 

(5)the term “monetary instruments” means (i) coin or currency of the United States or of any other country, travelers’ checks, personal checks, bank checks, and money orders, or (ii) investment securities or negotiable instruments, in bearer form or otherwise in such form that title thereto passes upon delivery;

 

(6)the term “financial institution” includes—

 

(A)any financial institution, as defined in section 5312(a)(2) of title 31, United States Code, or the regulations promulgated thereunder; and

 

 

(7)the term “specified unlawful activity” means—

 

(A)any act or activity constituting an offense listed in section 1961(1) of this title except an act which is indictable under subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31;

 

(B)with respect to a financial transaction occurring in whole or in part in the United States, an offense against a foreign nation involving—

 

(1)the manufacture, importation, sale, or distribution of a controlled substance (as such term is defined for the purposes of the Controlled Substances Act);

 

(ii)murder, kidnapping, robbery, extortion, destruction of property by means of explosive or fire, or a crime of violence (as defined in section 16);

 

(iii)fraud, or any scheme or attempt to defraud, by or against a foreign bank (as defined in paragraph 7 of section 1(b) of the International Banking Act of 1978));[1]

 

(iv)bribery of a public official, or the misappropriation, theft, or embezzlement of public funds by or for the benefit of a public official;

 

(v)smuggling or export control violations involving—

 

(I)an item controlled on the United States Munitions List established under section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778); or

 

(II) an item controlled under regulations under the Export Administration Regulations (15 C.F.R. Parts 730–774);

 

(vi)an offense with respect to which the United States would be obligated by a multilateral treaty, either to extradite the alleged offender or to submit the case for prosecution, if the offender were found within the territory of the United States; or

 

(vii)trafficking in persons, selling or buying of children, sexual exploitation of children, or transporting, recruiting or harboring a person, including a child, for commercial sex acts;

 

 

(D)an offense under section 32 (relating to the destruction of aircraft), section 37 (relating to violence at international airports), section 115 (relating to influencing, impeding, or retaliating against a Federal official by threatening or injuring a family member), section 152 (relating to concealment of assets; false oaths and claims; bribery), section 175c (relating to the variola virus), section 215 (relating to commissions or gifts for procuring loans), section 351 (relating to congressional or Cabinet officer assassination), any of sections 500 through 503 (relating to certain counterfeiting offenses), section 513 (relating to securities of States and private entities), section 541 (relating to goods falsely classified), section 542 (relating to entry of goods by means of falsestatements), section 545 (relating to smuggling goods into the United States), section 549 (relating to removing goods from Customs custody), section 554 (relating to smuggling goods from the United States), section 555 (relating to border tunnels), section 641 (relating to public money, property, or records), section 656 (relating to theft, embezzlement, or misapplication by bank officer or employee), section 657 (relating to lending, credit, and insurance institutions), section 658 (relating to property mortgaged or pledged to farm credit agencies), section 666 (relating to theft or bribery concerning programs receiving Federal funds), section 793, 794, or 798 (relating to espionage), section 831 (relating to prohibited transactions involving nuclear materials), section 844(f) or (i) (relating to destruction by explosives or fire of Government property or property affecting interstate or foreign commerce), section 875 (relating to interstate communications), section 922(l) (relating to the unlawful importation of firearms), section 924(n) (relating to firearms trafficking), section 956 (relating to conspiracy to kill, kidnap, maim, or injure certain property in a foreign country), section 1005 (relating to fraudulent bank entries), 1006[2] (relating to fraudulent Federal credit institution entries), 1007[2] (relating to Federal Deposit Insurance transactions), 1014[2] (relating to fraudulent loan or credit applications), section 1030 (relating to computer fraud and abuse), 1032[2] (relating to concealment of assets from conservator, receiver, or liquidating agent of financial institution), section 1111 (relating to murder), section 1114 (relating to murder of United Stateslaw enforcement officials), section 1116 (relating to murder of foreign officials, official guests, or internationally protected persons), section 1201 (relating to kidnaping), section 1203 (relating to hostage taking), section 1361 (relating to willful injury of Government property), section 1363 (relating to destruction of property within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction), section 1708 (theft from the mail), section 1751 (relating to Presidential assassination), section 2113 or 2114 (relating to bank and postal robbery and theft), section 2252A (relating to child pornography) where the child pornography contains a visual depiction of an actual minorengaging in sexually explicit conduct, section 2260 (production of certain child pornography for importation into the United States), section 2280 (relating to violence against maritime navigation), section 2281 (relating to violence against maritime fixed platforms), section 2319 (relating to copyright infringement), section 2320 (relating to trafficking in counterfeit goods and services), section 2332 (relating to terrorist acts abroad against United States nationals), section 2332a (relating to use of weapons of mass destruction), section 2332b (relating to international terrorist acts transcending national boundaries), section 2332g (relating to missile systems designed to destroy aircraft), section 2332h (relating to radiological dispersal devices), section 2339A or 2339B (relating to providing material support to terrorists), section 2339C (relating to financing of terrorism), or section 2339D (relating to receiving military-type training from a foreign terrorist organization) of this title, section 46502 of title 49, United States Code, a felony violation of the Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988 (relating to precursor and essential chemicals), section 590 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1590) (relating to aviation smuggling), section 422 of the Controlled Substances Act (relating to transportation of drug paraphernalia), section 38(c) (relating to criminal violations) of the Arms Export Control Act, section 11[3] (relating to violations) of the Export Administration Act of 1979, section 206 (relating to penalties) of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, section 16 (relating to offenses and punishment) of the Trading with the Enemy Act, anyfelony violation of section 15 of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (relating to supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits fraud) involving a quantity of benefits having a value of not less than $5,000, any violation of section 543(a)(1) of the Housing Act of 1949 (relating to equity skimming), any felony violation of the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938, any felony violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, section 92 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2122) (relating to prohibitions governing atomic weapons), or section 104(a) of the North Korea Sanctions Enforcement Act of 2016[3] (relating to prohibited activities with respect to North Korea);

environmental crimes

 

(E)felony violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.), the Ocean Dumping Act(33 U.S.C. 1401 et seq.), the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships (33 U.S.C. 1901 et seq.), the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300f et seq.), or the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.);

 

(F)any act or activity constituting an offense involving a Federal health care offense; or

 

(G)any act that is a criminal violation of subparagraph (A), (B), (C), (D), (E), or (F) of paragraph (1) of section 9(a) of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1538(a)(1)), section 2203 of the African Elephant Conservation Act (16 U.S.C. 4223), or section 7(a) of the Rhinoceros and Tiger Conservation Act of 1994 (16 U.S.C. 5305a(a)), if the endangered or threatened species of fish or wildlife, products, items, or substances involved in the violation and relevant conduct, as applicable, have a total value of more than $10,000;

 

(8)the term “State” includes a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States; and

 

(9)the term “proceeds” means any property derived from or obtained or retained, directly or indirectly, through some form of unlawful activity, including the gross receipts of such activity.

 

(d)Nothing in this section shall supersede any provision of Federal, State, or other law imposing criminal penalties or affording civil remedies in addition to those provided for in this section.

 

(e)Violations of this section may be investigated by such components of the Department of Justice as the Attorney General may direct, and by such components of the Department of the Treasury as the Secretary of the Treasury may direct, as appropriate, and, with respect to offenses over which the Department of Homeland Security has jurisdiction, by such components of the Department of Homeland Security as the Secretary of Homeland Security may direct, and, with respect to offenses over which the United States Postal Service has jurisdiction, by the Postal Service. Such authority of the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Postal Service shall be exercised in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered into by the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Postal Service, and the Attorney General. Violations of this section involving offenses described in paragraph (c)(7)(E) may be investigated by such components of the Department of Justice as the Attorney General may direct, and the National Enforcement Investigations Center of the Environmental Protection Agency.

 

(f)There is extraterritorial jurisdiction over the conduct prohibited by this section if—

 

(1)the conduct is by a United States citizen or, in the case of a non-United States citizen, the conduct occurs in part in the United States; and

 

(2)the transaction or series of related transactions involves funds or monetary instruments of a value exceeding $10,000.

 

(g)Notice of Conviction of Financial Institutions.— If any financial institution or any officer, director, or employee of any financial institution has been found guilty of anoffense under this section, section 1957 or 1960 of this title, or section 5322 or 5324 of title 31, the Attorney General shall provide written notice of such fact to the appropriate regulatory agency for the financial institution.

 

(h)Any person who conspires to commit any offense defined in this section or section 1957 shall be subject to the same penalties as those prescribed for the offense the commission of which was the object of the conspiracy.

 

(i)Venue.—

 

(1)Except as provided in paragraph (2), a prosecution for an offense under this section or section 1957 may be brought in—

 

  • any district in which the financial or monetary transactionis conducted; or

 

(B)any district where a prosecution for the underlying specified unlawful activity could be brought, if the defendant participated in the transfer of the proceeds of the specified unlawful activity from that district to the district where the financial or monetary transaction is conducted.

 

(2) A prosecution for an attempt or conspiracy offense under this section or section 1957 may be brought in the district where venue would lie for the completed offense under paragraph (1), or in any other district where an act in furtherance of the attempt or conspiracy took place.

 

(3)For purposes of this section, a transfer of funds from 1 place to another, by wire or any other means, shall constitute a single, continuing transaction. Any person who conducts (as that term is defined in subsection (c)(2)) any portion of the transaction may be charged in any district in which the transaction takes place.

 

(Added Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1352(a), Oct. 27, 1986100 Stat. 3207–18; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §§6183, 6465, 6466, 6469(a)(1), 6471(a), (b), title VII, §7031, Nov. 18, 1988102 Stat. 4354, 4375, 4377, 4378, 4398; Pub. L. 101–647, title I, §§105–108, title XII, §1205(j), title XIV, §§1402, 1404, title XXV, §2506, title XXXV, §3557, Nov. 29, 1990104 Stat. 4791, 4792, 4831, 4835, 4862, 4927; Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, §§1504(c), 1524, 1526(a), 1527(a), 1530, 1531, 1534, 1536, Oct. 28, 1992106 Stat. 4055, 4064–4067; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXII, §320104(b), title XXXIII, §§330008(2), 330011(l), 330012, 330019, 330021(1), Sept. 13, 1994108 Stat. 2111, 2142, 2145, 2146, 2149, 2150; Pub. L. 103–325, title IV, §§411(c)(2)(E), 413(c)(1), (d), Sept. 23, 1994108 Stat. 2253–2255Pub. L. 104–132, title VII, §726, Apr. 24, 1996110 Stat. 1301Pub. L. 104–191, title II, §246, Aug. 21, 1996110 Stat. 2018Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §§601(f)(6), 604(b)(38), Oct. 11, 1996110 Stat. 3499, 3509; Pub. L. 106–569, title VII, §709(a), Dec. 27, 2000114 Stat. 3018Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §§315, 317, 318, 376, title VIII, §805(b), title X, §1004, Oct. 26, 2001115 Stat. 308, 310, 311, 342, 378, 392; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §§4002(a)(11), (b)(5), (c)(2), 4005(d)(1), (e), Nov. 2, 2002116 Stat. 1807, 1809, 1812, 1813; Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, §6909, Dec. 17, 2004118 Stat. 3774Pub. L. 109–164, title I, §103(b), Jan. 10, 2006119 Stat. 3563Pub. L. 109–177, title III, §311(c), title IV, §§403(b), (c)(1), 405, 406(a)(2), 409, Mar. 9, 2006120 Stat. 242–244, 246; Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, §§4002(b)(1)(B), (D), (2)(M), 4115(c)(1)(A)(i), (B)(ii), May 22, 2008122 Stat. 1096, 1097, 1109; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title IV, §§4002(b)(1)(B), (D), (2)(M), 4115(c)(1)(A)(i), (B)(ii), June 18, 2008122 Stat. 1664, 1857, 1858, 1870; Pub. L. 110–358, title II, §202, Oct. 8, 2008122 Stat. 4003Pub. L. 111–21, §2(f)(1), May 20, 2009123 Stat. 1618Pub. L. 112–127, §6, June 5, 2012126 Stat. 371Pub. L. 114–122, title I, §105(c), Feb. 18, 2016130 Stat. 101Pub. L. 114–231, title V, §502, Oct. 7, 2016130 Stat. 956.)

 

[viii] 18 USC 1957 states

 

(a)Whoever, in any of the circumstances set forth in subsection (d), knowingly engages or attempts to engage in a monetary transaction in criminally derived property of a value greater than $10,000 and is derived from specified unlawful activity, shall be punished as provided in subsection (b).

 

(b)

 

(1)Except as provided in paragraph (2), the punishment for an offense under this section is a fine under title 18, United States Code, or imprisonment for not more than ten years or both. If the offense involves a pre-retail medical product (as defined in section 670) the punishment for the offense shall be the same as the punishment for an

offense under section 670 unless the punishment under this subsection is greater.

 

(2)The court may impose an alternate fine to that imposable under paragraph (1) of not more than twice the amount of the criminally derived property involved in the transaction.

 

(c)In a prosecution for an offense under this section, the Government is not required to prove the defendant knew that the offense from which the criminally derived property was derived was specified unlawful activity.

 

(d)The circumstances referred to in subsection (a) are—

 

(1)that the offense under this section takes place in the United States or in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States; or

 

(2)that the offense under this section takes place outside the United States and such special jurisdiction, but the defendant is a United States person (as defined in section 3077 of this title, but excluding the class described in paragraph (2)(D) of such section).

 

(e)Violations of this section may be investigated by such components of the Department of Justice as the Attorney General may direct, and by such components of the Department of the Treasury as the Secretary of the Treasury may direct, as appropriate, and, with respect to offenses over which the Department of Homeland Security has jurisdiction, by such components of the Department of Homeland Security as the Secretary of Homeland Security may direct, and, with respect to offenses over which the United States Postal Service has jurisdiction, by the Postal Service. Such authority of the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Postal Service shall be exercised in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered into by the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Postal Service, and the Attorney General.

 

(f)As used in this section—

 

(1)the term “monetary transaction” means the deposit, withdrawal, transfer, or exchange, in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, of funds or a monetary instrument (as defined in section 1956(c)(5) of this title) by, through, or to a financial institution (as defined in section 1956 of this title), including any transaction that would be a financial transaction under section 1956(c)(4)(B) of this title, but such term does not include any transaction necessary to preserve a person’s right to representation as guaranteed by the sixth amendment to the Constitution;

 

(2)

the term “criminally derived property” means any property constituting, or derived from, proceeds obtained from a criminal offense; and

 

(3)the terms “specified unlawful activity” and “proceeds” shall have the meaning given those terms in section 1956 of this title.

 

(Added Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1352(a), Oct. 27, 1986100 Stat. 3207–21; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §§6182, 6184, 6469(a)(2), Nov. 18, 1988102 Stat. 4354, 4377; Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, §§1526(b), 1527(b), Oct. 28, 1992106 Stat. 4065Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330020, Sept. 13, 1994108 Stat. 2149Pub. L. 103–325, title IV, §413(c)(2), Sept. 23, 1994108 Stat. 2255Pub. L. 109–177, title IV, §403(c)(2), Mar. 9, 2006120 Stat. 243Pub. L. 111–21, §2(f)(2), May 20, 2009123 Stat. 1618Pub. L. 112–186, §4(b)(2), Oct. 5, 2012126 Stat. 1429.)

 

[ix] (Added Pub. L. 97–248, title III, § 351(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 640.)

 

 

 

 

 

[1] H.R. 4498 -97th Congress [1981-1981] proposed:

Introduced in House (09/16/1981)

“Amends the Controlled Substances Act to establish in the Department of Health and Human Services the Office for the Supply of Internationally Controlled Drugs, to be responsible for regulating the domestic production of marihuana and the distribution of marihuana for medical, scientific, and research purposes.

Establishes procedures for the production of medicinal marihuana.

Permits the distribution of medicinal marihuana only to hospitals and pharmacies registered to dispense Schedule II controlled substances for the purposes of treating glaucoma or the nausea of cancer patients or research approved under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.”

[1] See How to reschedule marijuana, and why it’s unlikely anytime soon, The Brookings Institution [2015]

 

[1]Deputy Attorney General James Cole summarized cannabis related financial crimes in a February 14, 2014 memorandum:

 

“The provisions of the money laundering statutes, the unlicensed money remitter statute, and the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) remain in effect with respect to marijuana-related conduct. Financial transactions involving proceeds generated by marijuana-related conduct can form the basis for prosecution under the money laundering statutes (18 U.S.C. §§ 1956 and 1957), the unlicensed money transmitter statute (18 U.S.C. § 1960), and the BSA. Sections 1956 and 1957 of Title 18 make it a criminal offense to engage in certain financial and monetary transactions with the proceeds of a “specified unlawful activity,” including proceeds from marijuana-related violations of the CSA.

 

Transactions by or through a money transmitting business involving funds “derived from” marijuana related conduct can also serve as a predicate for prosecution under 18 U.S.C. § 1960. Additionally, financial institutions that conduct transactions with money generated by marijuana-related conduct could face criminal liability under the BSA for, among other things, failing to identify or report financial transactions that involved the proceeds of marijuana-related violations of the CSA. See, e.g., 31 U.S.C. § 5318(g). Notably for these purposes, prosecution under these offenses based on transactions involving marijuana proceeds does not require an underlying marijuana-related conviction under federal or state law.

 

  • Preventing the distribution of marijuana to minors;

 

  • Preventing revenue from the sale of marijuana from going to criminal enterprises, gangs, and cartels;

 

  • Preventing the diversion of marijuana from states where it is legal under state law in some form to other states;

 

  • Preventing state-authorized marijuana activity from being used as a cover or pretext for the trafficking of other illegal drugs or other illegal activity;

 

  • Preventing violence and the use of firearms in the cultivation and distribution of marijuana;

 

  • Preventing drugged driving and the exacerbation of other adverse public health consequences associated with marijuana use;

 

  • Preventing the growing of marijuana on public lands and the attendant public safety and environmental dangers posed by marijuana production on public lands; and

 

  • Preventing marijuana possession or use on federal property.

 

These priorities will continue to guide the Department’s enforcement of the CSA against marijuana-related conduct. Thus, this memorandum serves as guidance to Department attorneys and law enforcement to focus their enforcement resources and efforts, including prosecution, on persons or organizations whose conduct interferes with any one or more of these priorities, regardless of state law.”

.

 

[1] In a January 4, 2018 memorandum regarding cannabis enforcement, U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions summarized the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) as it relates to cannabis and the other crimes that may be triggered by violating the CSA. Sessions wrote:

 

“In the Controlled Substances Act, Congress has generally prohibited the cultivation, distribution, and possession of marijuana. 2 1 U.S.C. § 801 et seq. It has established significant penalties for these crimes. 2 1 U.S.C. § 841 el seq. These activities also may serve as the basis for the prosecution of other crimes, such as those prohibited by the money laundering statutes, the unlicensed money transmitter statute, and the Bank Secrecy Act. 18 U.S.C. §§ 1956-57, 1960; 3 1 U.S.C. § 53 18. These statutes reflect Congress’s determination that marijuana is a dangerous drug and that marijuana activity is a serious crime.”

 

[1] 21 USC 841 states

 

(a)Unlawful actsExcept as authorized by this subchapter, it shall be unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally—

 

(1) to manufacture, distribute, or dispense, or possess with intent to manufacture, distribute, or dispense, a controlled substance; or

(2)to create, distribute, or dispense, or possess with intent to distribute or dispense, a counterfeit substance.

 

(b)PenaltiesExcept as otherwise provided in section 849, 859, 860, or 861 of this title, any person who violates subsection (a) of this section shall be sentenced as follows:

 

(1)

(A)In the case of a violation of subsection (a) of this section involving—

 

(i)1 kilogram or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of heroin;

 

(ii)5 kilograms or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of—

 

  • coca leaves, except coca leaves and extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed;

 

  • cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers;

 

  • ecgonine, its derivatives, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers; or

 

  • any compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of any of the substances referred to in subclauses (I) through (III);

 

(iii) 280 grams or more of a mixture or substance described in clause (ii) which contains cocaine base;

 

(iv) 100 grams or more of phencyclidine (PCP) or 1 kilogram or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of phencyclidine (PCP);

 

(v) 10 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD);

 

(vi) 400 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of N-phenyl-N-[ 1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl ] propanamide or 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of any analogue of N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl] propanamide;

 

(vii) 1000 kilograms or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of marihuana, or 1,000 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight; or

 

(viii)50 grams or more of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, and salts of its isomers or 500 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, or salts of its isomers;

 

such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 10 years or more than life and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be not less than 20 years or more than life, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $10,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $50,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 20 years and not more than life imprisonment and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to life imprisonment, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $20,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $75,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits a violation of this subparagraph or of section 849, 859, 860, or 861 of this title after two or more prior convictions for afelony drug offense have become final, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory term of life imprisonment without release and fined in accordance with the preceding sentence. Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence under this subparagraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 5 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 10 years in addition to such term of imprisonment. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall not place on probation or suspend the sentence of any person sentenced under this subparagraph. No person sentenced under this subparagraph shall be eligible for parole during the term of imprisonment imposed therein.

 

(B)In the case of a violation of subsection (a) of this section involving—

 

(i)100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of heroin;

 

(ii)500 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of—

 

(I)coca leaves, except coca leaves and extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed;

 

(II)cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers;

 

(III)ecgonine, its derivatives, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers; or

 

(IV)any compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of any of the substances referred to in subclauses (I) through (III);

 

(iii)28 grams or more of a mixture or substance described in clause (ii) which contains cocaine base;

 

(iv)10 grams or more of phencyclidine (PCP) or 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of phencyclidine (PCP);

 

(v)1 gram or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD);

 

(vi)40 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of N-phenyl-N-[ 1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl ] propanamide or 10 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of any analogue of N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl] propanamide;

 

(vii)100 kilograms or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of marihuana, or 100 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight; or

 

(viii)5 grams or more of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, and salts of its isomers or 50 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, or salts of its isomers;

 

such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 5 years and not more than 40 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be not less than 20 years or more than life, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $5,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $25,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 10 years and not more than life imprisonment and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to life imprisonment, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $8,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $50,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence imposed under this subparagraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, include a term of supervised release of at least 4 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, include a term of supervised release of at least 8 years in addition to such term of imprisonment. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall not place on probation or suspend the sentence of any person sentenced under this subparagraph. No person sentenced under this subparagraph shall be eligible for parole during the term of imprisonment imposed therein.

 

(C) In the case of a controlled substance in schedule I or II, gamma hydroxybutyric acid (including when scheduled as an approved drug product for purposes of section 3(a)(1)(B) of the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Drug Prohibition Act of 2000), or 1 gram of flunitrazepam, except as provided in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (D), such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 20 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than twenty years or more than life, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $1,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $5,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for afelony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 30 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to life imprisonment, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $2,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $10,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this paragraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 3 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 6 years in addition to such term of imprisonment. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall not place on probation or suspend the sentence of any person sentenced under the provisions of this subparagraph which provide for a mandatory term of imprisonment if death or serious bodily injury results, nor shall a person so sentenced be eligible for parole during the term of such a sentence.

 

(D) In the case of less than 50 kilograms of marihuana, except in the case of 50 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight, 10 kilograms of hashish, or one kilogram of hashish oil, such person shall, except as provided in paragraphs (4) and (5) of this subsection, be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 5 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $250,000 if the defendant is an individual or $1,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, suchperson shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 10 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $500,000 if the defendant is an individual or $2,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Notwithstanding section 3583 of title 18, any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this paragraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 2 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 4 years in addition to such term of imprisonment.

 

(E)

 

(i)Except as provided in subparagraphs (C) and (D), in the case of any controlled substance in schedule III, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 10 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 15 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $500,000 if the defendant is an individual or $2,500,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both.

 

(ii)If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 20 years and if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of such substance shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 30 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $1,000,000 if the defendant is an individual or $5,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both.

 

(iii)Any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this subparagraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 2 years in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 4 years in addition to such term of imprisonment.

 

(2)In the case of a controlled substance in schedule IV, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 5 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $250,000 if the defendant is an individual or $1,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such personshall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 10 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $500,000 if the defendant is an individual or $2,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this paragraph shall, in the absence of such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least one year in addition to such term of imprisonment and shall, if there was such a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of at least 2 years in addition to such term of imprisonment.

 

(3)In the case of a controlled substance in schedule V, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than one year, a fine not to exceed the greater of that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $100,000 if the defendant is an individual or $250,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. If any person commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 4 years, a fine not to exceed the greater of twice that authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18 or $200,000 if the defendant is an individual or $500,000 if the defendant is other than an individual, or both. Any sentence imposing a term of imprisonment under this paragraph may, if there was a prior conviction, impose a term of supervised release of not more than 1 year, in addition to such term of imprisonment.

 

(4)Notwithstanding paragraph (1)(D) of this subsection, any person who violates subsection (a) of this section by distributing a small amount of marihuana for no remuneration shall be treated as provided in section 844 of this title and section 3607 of title 18.

 

(5)Any person who violates subsection (a) of this section by cultivating or manufacturing a controlled substance on Federal property shall be imprisoned as provided in this subsection and shall be fined any amount not to exceed—

 

(A)the amount authorized in accordance with this section;

 

(B)the amount authorized in accordance with the provisions of title 18;

 

(C)$500,000 if the defendant is an individual; or

 

(D)$1,000,000 if the defendant is other than an individual;or both.

 

(6)Any person who violates subsection (a), or attempts to do so, and knowingly or intentionally uses a poison, chemical, or other hazardous substance on Federal land, and, by such use—

 

(A)creates a serious hazard to humans, wildlife, or domestic animals,

 

(B)degrades or harms the environment or natural resources, or

 

(C)pollutes an aquifer, spring, stream, river, or body of water,

shall be fined in accordance with title 18 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

 

(7)Penalties for distribution.—

 

(A)In general.—Whoever, with intent to commit a crime of violence, as defined in section 16 of title 18 (including rape), against an individual, violates subsection (a) by distributing a controlled substance or controlled substance analogue to that individual without that individual’s knowledge, shall be imprisoned not more than 20 years and fined in accordance with title 18.

 

(B)Definition.— For purposes of this paragraph, the term “without that individual’s knowledge” means that the individual is unaware that a substance with the ability to alter that individual’s ability to appraise conduct or to decline participation in or communicate unwillingness to participate in conduct is administered to the individual.

 

(c)Offenses involving listed chemicalsAny person who knowingly or intentionally—

 

(1)possesses a listed chemical with intent to manufacture controlled substance except as authorized by this subchapter;

 

(2)possesses or distributes a listed chemical knowing, or having reasonable cause to believe, that the listed chemical will be used to manufacture controlled substance except as authorized by this subchapter; or

 

(3)with the intent of causing the evasion of the recordkeeping or reporting requirements of section 830 of this title, or the regulations issued under that section, receives or distributes a reportable amount of any listed chemical in units small enough so that the making of records or filing of reports under that section is not required;

 

shall be fined in accordance with title 18 or imprisoned not more than 20 years in the case of a violation of paragraph (1) or (2) involving a list I chemical or not more than 10 years in the case of a violation of this subsection other than a violation of paragraph (1) or (2) involving a list I chemical, or both.

 

(d)Boobytraps on Federal property; penalties; “boobytrap” defined

 

(1)Any person who assembles, maintains, places, or causes to be placed a boobytrap on Federal property where a controlled substance is being manufactured, distributed, or dispensed shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment for not more than 10 years or fined under title 18, or both.

 

(2)If any person commits such a violation after 1 or more prior convictions for an offense punishable under this subsection, such person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 20 years or fined under title 18, or both.

(3)

 

For the purposes of this subsection, the term “boobytrap” means any concealed or camouflaged device designed to cause bodily injury when triggered by any action of any unsuspecting person making contact with the device. Such term includes guns, ammunition, or explosive devices attached to trip wires or other triggering mechanisms, sharpened stakes, and lines or wires with hooks attached.

 

(e)Ten-year injunction as additional penalty

In addition to any other applicable penalty, any person convicted of a felony violation of this section relating to the receipt, distribution, manufacture, exportation, or importation of a listed chemical may be enjoined from engaging in any transaction involving a listed chemical for not more than ten years.

(f)Wrongful distribution or possession of listed chemicals

 

(1)Whoever knowingly distributes a listed chemical in violation of this subchapter (other than in violation of a recordkeeping or reporting requirement of section 830 of this title) shall, except to the extent that paragraph (12), (13), or (14) of section 842(a) of this title applies, be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both.

 

(2)Whoever possesses any listed chemical, with knowledge that the recordkeeping or reporting requirements of section 830 of this title have not been adhered to, if, after such knowledge is acquired, such person does not take immediate steps to remedy the violation shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

 

(g)Internet sales of date rape drugs

 

(1)Whoever knowingly uses the Internet to distribute a date rape drug to any person, knowing or with reasonable cause to believe that—

 

(A)the drug would be used in the commission of criminal sexual conduct; or

 

(B)the person is not an authorized purchaser; shall be fined under this subchapter or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.

 

(2)As used in this subsection:

 

(A)The term “date rape drug” means—

 

(i)gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) or any controlled substance analogue of GHB, including gamma butyrolactone (GBL) or 1,4–butanediol;

 

(ii)ketamine;

 

(iii)flunitrazepam; or

 

(iv)any substance which the Attorney General designates, pursuant to the rulemaking procedures prescribed by section 553 of title 5, to be used in committing rape or sexual assault.

 

The Attorney General is authorized to remove any substance from the list of date rape drugs pursuant to the same rulemaking authority.

 

(B)The term “authorized purchaser” means any of the following persons, provided such person has acquired the controlled substance in accordance with this chapter:

 

(i)person with a valid prescription that is issued for a legitimate medical purpose in the usual course of professional practice that is based upon a qualifying medical relationship by a practitioner registered by the Attorney General. A “qualifying medical relationship” means a medical relationship that exists when the practitioner has conducted at least 1 medical evaluation with the authorized purchaser in the physical presence of the practitioner, without regard to whether portions of the evaluation are conducted by other heath[1]professionals. The preceding sentence shall not be construed to imply that 1 medical evaluation demonstrates that a prescription has been issued for a legitimate medical purpose within the usual course of professional practice.

 

(ii)Any practitioner or other registrant who is otherwise authorized by their registration to dispense, procure, purchase, manufacture, transfer, distribute, import, or export the substance under this chapter.

 

(iii)person or entity providing documentation that establishes the name, address, and business of the person or entity and which provides a legitimate purpose for using any “date rape drug” for which a prescription is not required.

 

(3)

The Attorney General is authorized to promulgate regulations for record-keeping and reporting by persons handling 1,4–butanediol in order to implement and enforce the provisions of this section. Any record or report required by such regulations shall be considered a record or report required under this chapter.

 

(h)Offenses involving dispensing of controlled substances by means of the Internet

 

(1)In general It shall be unlawful for any person to knowingly or intentionally—

 

(A)deliverdistribute, or dispense controlled substance by means of the Internet, except as authorized by this subchapter; or

 

(B)aid or abet (as such terms are used in section 2 of title 18) any activity described in subparagraph (A) that is not authorized by this subchapter.

 

(2)Examples Examples of activities that violate paragraph (1) include, but are not limited to, knowingly or intentionally—

 

(A)delivering, distributing, or dispensing a controlled substance by means of the Internet by an online pharmacy that is not validly registered with a modification authorizing such activity as required by section 823(f) of this title(unless exempt from such registration);

 

(B)writing a prescription for a controlled substance for the purpose of delivery, distribution, or dispensation by means of the Internet in violation of section 829(e) of this title;

 

(C)serving as an agent, intermediary, or other entity that causes the Internet to be used to bring together a buyer and seller to engage in the dispensing of a controlled substance in a manner not authorized by sections[2]823(f) or 829(e) of this title;

 

(D)offering to fill a prescription for a controlled substance based solely on a consumer’s completion of an online medical questionnaire; and

 

(E)making a material false, fictitious, or fraudulent statement or representation in a notification or declaration under subsection (d) or (e), respectively, of section 831 of this title.

 

(3)Inapplicability

 

(A)This subsection does not apply to—

 

(i)the delivery, distribution, or dispensation of controlled substances by nonpractitioners to the extent authorized by their registration under this subchapter;

 

(ii)the placement on the Internet of material that merely advocates the use of a controlled substance or includes pricing information without attempting to propose or facilitate an actual transaction involving a controlled substance; or

 

(iii)except as provided in subparagraph (B), any activity that is limited to—

 

(I)the provision of a telecommunications service, or of an Internet access service or Internet information location tool (as those terms are defined in section 231 of title 47); or

 

(II)the transmission, storage, retrieval, hosting, formatting, or translation (or any combination thereof) of a communication, without selection or alteration of the content of the communication, except that deletion of a particular communication or material made by another person in a manner consistent with section 230(c) of title 47 shall not constitute such selection or alteration of the content of the communication.

 

(B) The exceptions under subclauses (I) and (II) of subparagraph (A)(iii) shall not apply to a person acting in concert with a person who violates paragraph (1).

 

(4)Knowing or intentional violation

Any person who knowingly or intentionally violates this subsection shall be sentenced in accordance with subsection (b).

(Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §401, Oct. 27, 197084 Stat. 1260Pub. L. 95–633, title II, §201, Nov. 10, 197892 Stat. 3774Pub. L. 96–359, §8(c), Sept. 26, 198094 Stat. 1194Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§224(a), 502, 503(b)(1), (2), Oct. 12, 198498 Stat. 2030, 2068, 2070; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §§1002, 1003(a), 1004(a), 1005(a), 1103, title XV, §15005, Oct. 27, 1986100 Stat. 3207–2, 3207–5, 3207–6, 3207–11, 3207–192; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §§6055, 6254(h), 6452(a), 6470(g), (h), 6479, Nov. 18, 1988102 Stat. 4318, 4367, 4371, 4378, 4381; Pub. L. 101–647, title X, §1002(e), title XII, §1202, title XXXV, §3599K, Nov. 29, 1990104 Stat. 4828, 4830, 4932; Pub. L. 103–322, title IX, §90105(a), (c), title XVIII, §180201(b)(2)(A), Sept. 13, 1994108 Stat. 1987, 1988, 2047; Pub. L. 104–237, title II, §206(a), title III, §302(a), Oct. 3, 1996110 Stat. 3103, 3105; Pub. L. 104–305, §2(a), (b)(1), Oct. 13, 1996110 Stat. 3807Pub. L. 105–277, div. E, §2(a), Oct. 21, 1998112 Stat. 2681–759Pub. L. 106–172, §§3(b)(1), 5(b), 9, Feb. 18, 2000114 Stat. 9, 10, 13; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title III, §3005(a), title IV, §4002(d)(2)(A), Nov. 2, 2002116 Stat. 1805, 1809; Pub. L. 109–177, title VII, §§711(f)(1)(B), 732, Mar. 9, 2006120 Stat. 262, 270; Pub. L. 109–248, title II, §201, July 27, 2006120 Stat. 611Pub. L. 110–425, §3(e), (f), Oct. 15, 2008122 Stat. 4828, 4829; Pub. L. 111–220, §§2(a), 4(a), Aug. 3, 2010124 Stat. 2372.)

 

[1] 21 USC 881 states

 

(a)Subject propertyThe following shall be subject to forfeiture to the United States and no property right shall exist in them:

 

(1)All controlled substances which have been manufactured, distributed, dispensed, or acquired in violation of this subchapter.

 

(2)All raw materials, products, and equipment of any kind which are used, or intended for use, in manufacturing, compounding, processing, delivering, importing, or exporting any controlled substance or listed chemical in violation of this subchapter.

 

(3)All property which is used, or intended for use, as a container for property described in paragraph (1), (2), or (9).

 

(4)All conveyances, including aircraft, vehicles, or vessels, which are used, or are intended for use, to transport, or in any manner to facilitate the transportation, sale, receipt, possession, or concealment of property described in paragraph (1), (2), or (9).

 

(5)All books, records, and research, including formulas, microfilm, tapes, and data which are used, or intended for use, in violation of this subchapter.

 

(6)All moneys, negotiable instruments, securities, or other things of value furnished or intended to be furnished by any person in exchange for a controlled substance or listed chemical in violation of this subchapter, all proceeds traceable to such an exchange, and all moneys, negotiable instruments, and securities used or intended to be used to facilitate any violation of this subchapter.

 

(7)All real property, including any right, title, and interest (including any leasehold interest) in the whole of any lot or tract of land and any appurtenances or improvements, which is used, or intended to be used, in any manner or part, to commit, or to facilitate the commission of, a violation of this subchapter punishable by more than one year’s imprisonment.

 

(8)All controlled substances which have been possessed in violation of this subchapter.

 

(9)All listed chemicals, all drug manufacturing equipment, all tableting machines, all encapsulating machines, and all gelatin capsules, which have been imported, exported, manufactured, possessed, distributed, dispensed, acquired, or intended to be distributed, dispensed, acquired, imported, or exported, in violation of this subchapter or subchapter II.

 

(10)Any drug paraphernalia (as defined in section 863 of this title).

 

(11) Any firearm (as defined in section 921 of title 18) used or intended to be used to facilitate the transportation, sale, receipt, possession, or concealment of property described in paragraph (1) or (2) and any proceeds traceable to such property.

 

(b)Seizure procedures – Any property subject to forfeiture to the United States under this section may be seized by the Attorney General in the manner set forth in section 981(b) of title 18.

 

(c)Custody of Attorney GeneralProperty taken or detained under this section shall not be repleviable, but shall be deemed to be in the custody of the Attorney General, subject only to the orders and decrees of the court or the official having jurisdiction thereof. Whenever property is seized under any of the provisions of this subchapter, the Attorney General may—

 

(1)place the property under seal;

 

(2)remove the property to a place designated by him; or

(3)require that the General Services Administration take custody of the property and remove it, if practicable, to an appropriate location for disposition in accordance with law.

 

(d)Other laws and proceedings applicable The provisions of law relating to the seizure, summary and judicial forfeiture, and condemnation of property for violation of the customs laws; the disposition of such property or the proceeds from the sale thereof; the remission or mitigation of such forfeitures; and the compromise of claims shall apply to seizures and forfeitures incurred, or alleged to have been incurred, under any of the provisions of this subchapter, insofar as applicable and not inconsistent with the provisions hereof; except that such duties as are imposed upon the customs officer or any other person with respect to the seizure and forfeiture of property under the customs laws shall be performed with respect to seizures and forfeitures of property under this subchapter by such officers, agents, or other persons as may be authorized or designated for that purpose by the Attorney General, except to the extent that such duties arise from seizures and forfeitures effected by any customs officer.

 

(e)Disposition of forfeited property

 

(1)Whenever property is civilly or criminally forfeited under this subchapter the Attorney General may—

 

(A)retain the property for official use or, in the manner provided with respect to transfers under section 1616a of title 19, transfer the property to any Federal agency or to any State or local law enforcement agency which participated directly in the seizure or forfeiture of the property;

 

(B)except as provided in paragraph (4), sell, by public sale or any other commercially feasible means, any forfeited property which is not required to be destroyed by law and which is not harmful to the public;

 

(C) require that the General Services Administration take custody of the property and dispose of it in accordance with law;

 

(D) forward it to the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs for disposition (including delivery for medical or scientific use to any Federal or State agency under regulations of the Attorney General); or

 

(E)transfer the forfeited personal property or the proceeds of the sale of any forfeited personal or real property to any foreign country which participated directly or indirectly in the seizure or forfeiture of the property, if such a transfer

 

 

(ii)is authorized in an international agreement between the United States and the foreign country; and

 

(iii)

is made to a country which, if applicable, has been certified under section 2291j(b) of title 22.

 

(2)

 

(A)The proceeds from any sale under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) and any moneys forfeited under this subchapter shall be used to pay—

 

(i)all property expenses of the proceedings for forfeiture and sale including expenses of seizure, maintenance of custody, advertising, and court costs; and

 

(ii)awards of up to $100,000 to any individual who provides original information which leads to the arrest and conviction of a person who kills or kidnaps a Federal drug law enforcement agent.

 

Any award paid for information concerning the killing or kidnapping of a Federal drug law enforcement agent, as provided in clause (ii), shall be paid at the discretion of the Attorney General.

 

(B)The Attorney General shall forward to the Treasurer of the United States for deposit in accordance with section 524(c) of title 28, any amounts of such moneys and proceeds remaining after payment of the expenses provided in subparagraph (A), except that, with respect to forfeitures conducted by the Postal Service, the Postal Service shall deposit in the Postal Service Fund, under section 2003(b)(7) of title 39, such moneys and proceeds.

 

(3)The Attorney General shall assure that any property transferred to a State or local law enforcement agency under paragraph (1)(A)—

 

(A)has a value that bears a reasonable relationship to the degree of direct participation of the State or local agency in the law enforcement effort resulting in the forfeiture, taking into account the total value of all property forfeited and the total law enforcement effort with respect to the violation of law on which the forfeiture is based; and

 

(B)will serve to encourage further cooperation between the recipient State or local agency and Federal law enforcement agencies.

 

(4)

 

  • With respect to real property described in subparagraph (B), if the chief executive officer of the State involved submits to the Attorney General a request for purposes of such subparagraph, the authority established in such subparagraph is in lieu of the authority established in paragraph (1)(B).

 

(B)In the case of property described in paragraph (1)(B) that is civilly or criminally forfeited under this subchapter, if the property is real property that is appropriate for use as a public area reserved for recreational or historic purposes or for the preservation of natural conditions, the Attorney General, upon the request of the chief executive officer of the State in which the property is located, may transfer title to the property to the State, either without charge or for a nominal charge, through a legal instrument providing that—

 

(i)such use will be the principal use of the property; and

 

(ii) title to the property reverts to the United States in the event that the property is used otherwise.

 

(f)Forfeiture and destruction of schedule I and II substances

 

(1)All controlled substances in schedule I or II that are possessed, transferred, sold, or offered for sale in violation of the provisions of this subchapter; all dangerous, toxic, or hazardous raw materials or products subject to forfeiture under subsection (a)(2) of this section; and any equipment or container subject to forfeiture under subsection (a)(2) or (3) which cannot be separated safely from such raw materials or products shall be deemed contraband and seized and summarily forfeited to the United States. Similarly, all substances in schedule I or II, which are seized or come into the possession of the United States, the owners of which are unknown, shall be deemed contraband and summarily forfeited to the United States.

 

  • The Attorney General may direct the destruction of all controlled substancesin schedule I or II seized for violation of this subchapter; all dangerous, toxic, or hazardous raw materials or products subject to forfeiture under subsection (a)(2) of this section; and any equipment or container subject to forfeiture under subsection (a)(2) or (3) which cannot be separated safely from such raw materials or products under such circumstances as the Attorney General may deem necessary.

 

(g)Plants

(1)All species of plants from which controlled substances in schedules I and II may be derived which have been planted or cultivated in violation of this subchapter, or of which the owners or cultivators are unknown, or which are wild growths, may be seized and summarily forfeited to the United States.

 

  • The failure, upon demand by the Attorney General or his duly authorized agent, of theperson in occupancy or in control of land or premises upon which such species of plants are growing or being stored, to produce an appropriate registration, or proof that he is the holder thereof, shall constitute authority for the seizure and forfeiture.

 

(4)The Attorney General, or his duly authorized agent, shall have authority to enter upon any lands, or into any dwelling pursuant to a search warrant, to cut, harvest, carry off, or destroy such plants.

 

(h)Vesting of title in United States

All right, title, and interest in property described in subsection (a) shall vest in the United States upon commission of the act giving rise to forfeiture under this section.

(i)Stay of civil forfeiture proceedings

The provisions of section 981(g) of title 18 regarding the stay of a civil forfeiture proceeding shall apply to forfeitures under this section.

(j)Venue In addition to the venue provided for in section 1395 of title 28 or any other provision of law, in the case of property of a defendant charged with a violation that is the basis for forfeiture of the property under this section, a proceeding for forfeiture under this section may be brought in the judicial district in which the defendant owning such property is found or in the judicial district in which the criminal prosecution is brought.

 

(l)[1] Agreement between Attorney General and Postal Service for performance of functions

 

The functions of the Attorney General under this section shall be carried out by the Postal Service pursuant to such agreement as may be entered into between the Attorney General and the Postal Service.

 

(Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §511, Oct. 27, 197084 Stat. 1276Pub. L. 95–633, title III, §301(a), Nov. 10, 197892 Stat. 3777Pub. L. 96–132, §14, Nov. 30, 197993 Stat. 1048Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§306, 309, 518, Oct. 12, 198498 Stat. 2050, 2051, 2075; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §§1006(c), 1865, 1992, Oct. 27, 1986100 Stat. 3207–7, 3207–54, 3207–59; Pub. L. 99–646, §74, Nov. 10, 1986100 Stat. 3618Pub. L. 100–690, title V, §5105, title VI, §§6059, 6074, 6075, 6077(a), (b), 6253, Nov. 18, 1988102 Stat. 4301, 4319, 4323–4325, 4363; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XII, §1215(a), Nov. 29, 1989103 Stat. 1569Pub. L. 101–647, title XX, §§2003, 2004, 2007, 2008, Nov. 29, 1990104 Stat. 4855, 4856; Pub. L. 102–239, §2, Dec. 17, 1991105 Stat. 1912Pub. L. 103–447, title I, §102(d), Nov. 2, 1994108 Stat. 4693Pub. L. 104–237, title II, §201(b), Oct. 3, 1996110 Stat. 3101Pub. L. 106–185, §§2(c)(2), 5(b), 8(b), Apr. 25, 2000114 Stat. 210, 214, 216; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §4002(e)(3), Nov. 2, 2002116 Stat. 1810.)

 

[1] 18 USC 1956 states

(a)

 

(1)Whoever, knowing that the property involved in a financial transaction represents the proceeds of some form of unlawful activity, conducts or attempts to conduct such a financial transaction which in fact involves the proceeds ofspecified unlawful activity—

(A)

 

 

(ii)with intent to engage in conduct constituting a violation of section 7201 or 7206 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986; or

 

(B)knowing that the transaction is designed in whole or in part—

 

(ii)to avoid a transaction reporting requirement under State or Federal law,

shall be sentenced to a fine of not more than $500,000 or twice the value of the property involved in the transaction, whichever is greater, or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both. For purposes of this paragraph, a financial transaction shall be considered to be one involving the proceeds of specified unlawful activity if it is part of a set of parallel or dependent transactions, any one of which involves theproceeds of specified unlawful activity, and all of which are part of a single plan or arrangement.

 

(2)Whoever transports, transmits, or transfers, or attempts to transport, transmit, or transfer a monetary instrument or funds from a place in the United States to or through a place outside the United States or to a place in the United States from or through a place outside the United States

 

(A)with the intent to promote the carrying on of specified unlawful activity; or

 

(B)knowing that the monetary instrument or funds involved in the transportation, transmission, or transfer represent the proceeds of some form of unlawful activity and knowing that such transportation, transmission, or transfer is designed in whole or in part—

 

(i)

to conceal or disguise the nature, the location, the source, the ownership, or the control of the proceeds of specified unlawful activity; or

 

(ii)to avoid a transaction reporting requirement under State or Federal law,

shall be sentenced to a fine of not more than $500,000 or twice the value of the monetary instrument or funds involved in the transportation, transmission, or transfer, whichever is greater, or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both. For the purpose of the offense described in subparagraph (B), the defendant’s knowledge may be established by proof that a law enforcement officer represented the matter specified in subparagraph (B) as true, and the defendant’s subsequent statements or actions indicate that the defendant believed such representations to be true.

 

(3)Whoever, with the intent—

 

 

(B)to conceal or disguise the nature, location, source, ownership, or control of property believed to be the proceeds of specified unlawful activity; or

 

(C)to avoid a transaction reporting requirement under State or Federal law,

conducts or attempts to conduct a financial transaction involving property represented to be the proceeds of specified unlawful activity, or property used to conduct or facilitate specified unlawful activity, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for not more than 20 years, or both. For purposes of this paragraph and paragraph (2), the term “represented” means any representation made by a law enforcement officer or by another person at the direction of, or with the approval of, a Federal official authorized to investigate or prosecute violations of this section.

 

(b)Penalties.—

 

(1)In general.—Whoever conducts or attempts to conduct a transaction described in subsection (a)(1) or (a)(3), or section 1957, or a transportation, transmission, or transfer described in subsection (a)(2), is liable to the UnitedStates for a civil penalty of not more than the greater of—

 

(A)the value of the property, funds, or monetary instruments involved in the transaction; or

 

(B)$10,000.

 

(2)Jurisdiction over foreign persons.—For purposes of adjudicating an action filed or enforcing a penalty ordered under this section, the district courts shall have jurisdiction over any foreign person, including any financial institution authorized under the laws of a foreign country, against whom the action is brought, if service of process upon the foreign person is made under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure or the laws of the country in which the foreign person is found, and—

 

(A)the foreign person commits an offense under subsection (a) involving a financial transaction that occurs in whole or in part in the United States;

 

  • the foreign personconverts, to his or her own use, property in which the United States has an ownership interest by virtue of the entry of an order of forfeiture by a court of the United States; or

 

(C)the foreign person is a financial institution that maintains a bank account at a financial institution in the United States.

 

(3)Court authority over assets.—

A court may issue a pretrial restraining order or take any other action necessary to ensure that any bank account or other property held by the defendant in the United States is available to satisfy a judgment under this section.

 

(4)Federal receiver.—

 

(A)In general.—A court may appoint a Federal Receiver, in accordance with subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, to collect, marshal, and take custody, control, and possession of all assets of the defendant, wherever located, to satisfy a civil judgment under this subsection, a forfeiture judgment under section 981 or 982, or a criminal sentence under section 1957 or subsection (a) of this section, including an order of restitution to any victim of a specified unlawful activity.

 

(B)Appointment and authority.—A Federal Receiver described in subparagraph (A)—

 

(i)may be appointed upon application of a Federal prosecutor or a Federal or State regulator, by the court having jurisdiction over the defendant in the case;

 

(ii)shall be an officer of the court, and the powers of the Federal Receiver shall include the powers set out in section 754 of title 28, United States Code; and

 

(iii)shall have standing equivalent to that of a Federal prosecutor for the purpose of submitting requests to obtain information regarding the assets of the defendant—

 

(I)from the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network of the Department of the Treasury; or

 

(II) from a foreign country pursuant to a mutual legal assistance treaty, multilateral agreement, or other arrangement for international law enforcement assistance, provided that such requests are in accordance with the policies and procedures of the Attorney General.

 

(c)As used in this section—

 

(1)the term “knowing that the property involved in a financial transaction represents the proceeds of some form of unlawful activity” means that the person knew the property involved in the transaction represented proceeds from some form, though not necessarily which form, of activity that constitutes a felony under State, Federal, or foreign law, regardless of whether or not such activity is specified in paragraph (7);

 

(2) the term “conducts” includes initiating, concluding, or participating in initiating, or concluding a transaction;

 

  • the term “transaction” includes a purchase, sale, loan, pledge, gift, transfer, delivery, or other disposition, and with respect to a financial institutionincludes a deposit, withdrawal, transfer between accounts, exchange of currency, loan, extension of credit, purchase or sale of any stock, bond, certificate of deposit, or other monetary instrument, use of a safe deposit box, or any other payment, transfer, or delivery by, through, or to a financial institution, by whatever means effected;

 

(4)the term “financial transaction” means (A) a transaction which in any way or degree affects interstate or foreign commerce (i) involving the movement of funds by wire or other means or (ii) involving one or more monetary instruments, or (iii) involving the transfer of title to any real property, vehicle, vessel, or aircraft, or (B) a transaction involving the use of a financial institution which is engaged in, or the activities of which affect, interstate or foreign commerce in any way or degree;

 

(5)the term “monetary instruments” means (i) coin or currency of the United States or of any other country, travelers’ checks, personal checks, bank checks, and money orders, or (ii) investment securities or negotiable instruments, in bearer form or otherwise in such form that title thereto passes upon delivery;

 

(6)the term “financial institution” includes—

 

(A)any financial institution, as defined in section 5312(a)(2) of title 31, United States Code, or the regulations promulgated thereunder; and

 

 

(7)the term “specified unlawful activity” means—

 

(A)any act or activity constituting an offense listed in section 1961(1) of this title except an act which is indictable under subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31;

 

(B)with respect to a financial transaction occurring in whole or in part in the United States, an offense against a foreign nation involving—

 

(1)the manufacture, importation, sale, or distribution of a controlled substance (as such term is defined for the purposes of the Controlled Substances Act);

 

(ii)murder, kidnapping, robbery, extortion, destruction of property by means of explosive or fire, or a crime of violence (as defined in section 16);

 

(iii)fraud, or any scheme or attempt to defraud, by or against a foreign bank (as defined in paragraph 7 of section 1(b) of the International Banking Act of 1978));[1]

 

(iv)bribery of a public official, or the misappropriation, theft, or embezzlement of public funds by or for the benefit of a public official;

 

(v)smuggling or export control violations involving—

 

(I)an item controlled on the United States Munitions List established under section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778); or

 

(II) an item controlled under regulations under the Export Administration Regulations (15 C.F.R. Parts 730–774);

 

(vi)an offense with respect to which the United States would be obligated by a multilateral treaty, either to extradite the alleged offender or to submit the case for prosecution, if the offender were found within the territory of the United States; or

 

(vii)trafficking in persons, selling or buying of children, sexual exploitation of children, or transporting, recruiting or harboring a person, including a child, for commercial sex acts;

 

 

(D)an offense under section 32 (relating to the destruction of aircraft), section 37 (relating to violence at international airports), section 115 (relating to influencing, impeding, or retaliating against a Federal official by threatening or injuring a family member), section 152 (relating to concealment of assets; false oaths and claims; bribery), section 175c (relating to the variola virus), section 215 (relating to commissions or gifts for procuring loans), section 351 (relating to congressional or Cabinet officer assassination), any of sections 500 through 503 (relating to certain counterfeiting offenses), section 513 (relating to securities of States and private entities), section 541 (relating to goods falsely classified), section 542 (relating to entry of goods by means of falsestatements), section 545 (relating to smuggling goods into the United States), section 549 (relating to removing goods from Customs custody), section 554 (relating to smuggling goods from the United States), section 555 (relating to border tunnels), section 641 (relating to public money, property, or records), section 656 (relating to theft, embezzlement, or misapplication by bank officer or employee), section 657 (relating to lending, credit, and insurance institutions), section 658 (relating to property mortgaged or pledged to farm credit agencies), section 666 (relating to theft or bribery concerning programs receiving Federal funds), section 793, 794, or 798 (relating to espionage), section 831 (relating to prohibited transactions involving nuclear materials), section 844(f) or (i) (relating to destruction by explosives or fire of Government property or property affecting interstate or foreign commerce), section 875 (relating to interstate communications), section 922(l) (relating to the unlawful importation of firearms), section 924(n) (relating to firearms trafficking), section 956 (relating to conspiracy to kill, kidnap, maim, or injure certain property in a foreign country), section 1005 (relating to fraudulent bank entries), 1006[2] (relating to fraudulent Federal credit institution entries), 1007[2] (relating to Federal Deposit Insurance transactions), 1014[2] (relating to fraudulent loan or credit applications), section 1030 (relating to computer fraud and abuse), 1032[2] (relating to concealment of assets from conservator, receiver, or liquidating agent of financial institution), section 1111 (relating to murder), section 1114 (relating to murder of United Stateslaw enforcement officials), section 1116 (relating to murder of foreign officials, official guests, or internationally protected persons), section 1201 (relating to kidnaping), section 1203 (relating to hostage taking), section 1361 (relating to willful injury of Government property), section 1363 (relating to destruction of property within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction), section 1708 (theft from the mail), section 1751 (relating to Presidential assassination), section 2113 or 2114 (relating to bank and postal robbery and theft), section 2252A (relating to child pornography) where the child pornography contains a visual depiction of an actual minorengaging in sexually explicit conduct, section 2260 (production of certain child pornography for importation into the United States), section 2280 (relating to violence against maritime navigation), section 2281 (relating to violence against maritime fixed platforms), section 2319 (relating to copyright infringement), section 2320 (relating to trafficking in counterfeit goods and services), section 2332 (relating to terrorist acts abroad against United States nationals), section 2332a (relating to use of weapons of mass destruction), section 2332b (relating to international terrorist acts transcending national boundaries), section 2332g (relating to missile systems designed to destroy aircraft), section 2332h (relating to radiological dispersal devices), section 2339A or 2339B (relating to providing material support to terrorists), section 2339C (relating to financing of terrorism), or section 2339D (relating to receiving military-type training from a foreign terrorist organization) of this title, section 46502 of title 49, United States Code, a felony violation of the Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988 (relating to precursor and essential chemicals), section 590 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1590) (relating to aviation smuggling), section 422 of the Controlled Substances Act (relating to transportation of drug paraphernalia), section 38(c) (relating to criminal violations) of the Arms Export Control Act, section 11[3] (relating to violations) of the Export Administration Act of 1979, section 206 (relating to penalties) of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, section 16 (relating to offenses and punishment) of the Trading with the Enemy Act, anyfelony violation of section 15 of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (relating to supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits fraud) involving a quantity of benefits having a value of not less than $5,000, any violation of section 543(a)(1) of the Housing Act of 1949 (relating to equity skimming), any felony violation of the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938, any felony violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, section 92 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2122) (relating to prohibitions governing atomic weapons), or section 104(a) of the North Korea Sanctions Enforcement Act of 2016[3] (relating to prohibited activities with respect to North Korea);

environmental crimes

 

(E)felony violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.), the Ocean Dumping Act(33 U.S.C. 1401 et seq.), the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships (33 U.S.C. 1901 et seq.), the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300f et seq.), or the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.);

 

(F)any act or activity constituting an offense involving a Federal health care offense; or

 

(G)any act that is a criminal violation of subparagraph (A), (B), (C), (D), (E), or (F) of paragraph (1) of section 9(a) of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1538(a)(1)), section 2203 of the African Elephant Conservation Act (16 U.S.C. 4223), or section 7(a) of the Rhinoceros and Tiger Conservation Act of 1994 (16 U.S.C. 5305a(a)), if the endangered or threatened species of fish or wildlife, products, items, or substances involved in the violation and relevant conduct, as applicable, have a total value of more than $10,000;

 

(8)the term “State” includes a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States; and

 

(9)the term “proceeds” means any property derived from or obtained or retained, directly or indirectly, through some form of unlawful activity, including the gross receipts of such activity.

 

(d)Nothing in this section shall supersede any provision of Federal, State, or other law imposing criminal penalties or affording civil remedies in addition to those provided for in this section.

 

(e)Violations of this section may be investigated by such components of the Department of Justice as the Attorney General may direct, and by such components of the Department of the Treasury as the Secretary of the Treasury may direct, as appropriate, and, with respect to offenses over which the Department of Homeland Security has jurisdiction, by such components of the Department of Homeland Security as the Secretary of Homeland Security may direct, and, with respect to offenses over which the United States Postal Service has jurisdiction, by the Postal Service. Such authority of the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Postal Service shall be exercised in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered into by the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Postal Service, and the Attorney General. Violations of this section involving offenses described in paragraph (c)(7)(E) may be investigated by such components of the Department of Justice as the Attorney General may direct, and the National Enforcement Investigations Center of the Environmental Protection Agency.

 

(f)There is extraterritorial jurisdiction over the conduct prohibited by this section if—

 

(1)the conduct is by a United States citizen or, in the case of a non-United States citizen, the conduct occurs in part in the United States; and

 

(2)the transaction or series of related transactions involves funds or monetary instruments of a value exceeding $10,000.

 

(g)Notice of Conviction of Financial Institutions.— If any financial institution or any officer, director, or employee of any financial institution has been found guilty of anoffense under this section, section 1957 or 1960 of this title, or section 5322 or 5324 of title 31, the Attorney General shall provide written notice of such fact to the appropriate regulatory agency for the financial institution.

 

(h)Any person who conspires to commit any offense defined in this section or section 1957 shall be subject to the same penalties as those prescribed for the offense the commission of which was the object of the conspiracy.

 

(i)Venue.—

(1)Except as provided in paragraph (2), a prosecution for an offense under this section or section 1957 may be brought in—

 

  • any district in which the financial or monetary transactionis conducted; or

 

(B)any district where a prosecution for the underlying specified unlawful activity could be brought, if the defendant participated in the transfer of the proceeds of the specified unlawful activity from that district to the district where the financial or monetary transaction is conducted.

 

(2) A prosecution for an attempt or conspiracy offense under this section or section 1957 may be brought in the district where venue would lie for the completed offense under paragraph (1), or in any other district where an act in furtherance of the attempt or conspiracy took place.

 

(3)For purposes of this section, a transfer of funds from 1 place to another, by wire or any other means, shall constitute a single, continuing transaction. Any person who conducts (as that term is defined in subsection (c)(2)) any portion of the transaction may be charged in any district in which the transaction takes place.

 

(Added Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1352(a), Oct. 27, 1986100 Stat. 3207–18; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §§6183, 6465, 6466, 6469(a)(1), 6471(a), (b), title VII, §7031, Nov. 18, 1988102 Stat. 4354, 4375, 4377, 4378, 4398; Pub. L. 101–647, title I, §§105–108, title XII, §1205(j), title XIV, §§1402, 1404, title XXV, §2506, title XXXV, §3557, Nov. 29, 1990104 Stat. 4791, 4792, 4831, 4835, 4862, 4927; Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, §§1504(c), 1524, 1526(a), 1527(a), 1530, 1531, 1534, 1536, Oct. 28, 1992106 Stat. 4055, 4064–4067; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXII, §320104(b), title XXXIII, §§330008(2), 330011(l), 330012, 330019, 330021(1), Sept. 13, 1994108 Stat. 2111, 2142, 2145, 2146, 2149, 2150; Pub. L. 103–325, title IV, §§411(c)(2)(E), 413(c)(1), (d), Sept. 23, 1994108 Stat. 2253–2255Pub. L. 104–132, title VII, §726, Apr. 24, 1996110 Stat. 1301Pub. L. 104–191, title II, §246, Aug. 21, 1996110 Stat. 2018Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §§601(f)(6), 604(b)(38), Oct. 11, 1996110 Stat. 3499, 3509; Pub. L. 106–569, title VII, §709(a), Dec. 27, 2000114 Stat. 3018Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §§315, 317, 318, 376, title VIII, §805(b), title X, §1004, Oct. 26, 2001115 Stat. 308, 310, 311, 342, 378, 392; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §§4002(a)(11), (b)(5), (c)(2), 4005(d)(1), (e), Nov. 2, 2002116 Stat. 1807, 1809, 1812, 1813; Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, §6909, Dec. 17, 2004118 Stat. 3774Pub. L. 109–164, title I, §103(b), Jan. 10, 2006119 Stat. 3563Pub. L. 109–177, title III, §311(c), title IV, §§403(b), (c)(1), 405, 406(a)(2), 409, Mar. 9, 2006120 Stat. 242–244, 246; Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, §§4002(b)(1)(B), (D), (2)(M), 4115(c)(1)(A)(i), (B)(ii), May 22, 2008122 Stat. 1096, 1097, 1109; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title IV, §§4002(b)(1)(B), (D), (2)(M), 4115(c)(1)(A)(i), (B)(ii), June 18, 2008122 Stat. 1664, 1857, 1858, 1870; Pub. L. 110–358, title II, §202, Oct. 8, 2008122 Stat. 4003Pub. L. 111–21, §2(f)(1), May 20, 2009123 Stat. 1618Pub. L. 112–127, §6, June 5, 2012126 Stat. 371Pub. L. 114–122, title I, §105(c), Feb. 18, 2016130 Stat. 101Pub. L. 114–231, title V, §502, Oct. 7, 2016130 Stat. 956.)

 

[1] 18 USC 1957 states

 

(a)Whoever, in any of the circumstances set forth in subsection (d), knowingly engages or attempts to engage in a monetary transaction in criminally derived property of a value greater than $10,000 and is derived from specified unlawful activity, shall be punished as provided in subsection (b).

 

(b)

(1)Except as provided in paragraph (2), the punishment for an offense under this section is a fine under title 18, United States Code, or imprisonment for not more than ten years or both. If the offense involves a pre-retail medical product (as defined in section 670) the punishment for the offense shall be the same as the punishment for an

offense under section 670 unless the punishment under this subsection is greater.

 

(2)The court may impose an alternate fine to that imposable under paragraph (1) of not more than twice the amount of the criminally derived property involved in the transaction.

 

(c)In a prosecution for an offense under this section, the Government is not required to prove the defendant knew that the offense from which the criminally derived property was derived was specified unlawful activity.

 

(d)The circumstances referred to in subsection (a) are—

 

(1)that the offense under this section takes place in the United States or in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States; or

 

(2)that the offense under this section takes place outside the United States and such special jurisdiction, but the defendant is a United States person (as defined in section 3077 of this title, but excluding the class described in paragraph (2)(D) of such section).

 

(e)Violations of this section may be investigated by such components of the Department of Justice as the Attorney General may direct, and by such components of the Department of the Treasury as the Secretary of the Treasury may direct, as appropriate, and, with respect to offenses over which the Department of Homeland Security has jurisdiction, by such components of the Department of Homeland Security as the Secretary of Homeland Security may direct, and, with respect to offenses over which the United States Postal Service has jurisdiction, by the Postal Service. Such authority of the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Postal Service shall be exercised in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered into by the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Postal Service, and the Attorney General.

 

(f)As used in this section—

 

(1)the term “monetary transaction” means the deposit, withdrawal, transfer, or exchange, in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, of funds or a monetary instrument (as defined in section 1956(c)(5) of this title) by, through, or to a financial institution (as defined in section 1956 of this title), including any transaction that would be a financial transaction under section 1956(c)(4)(B) of this title, but such term does not include any transaction necessary to preserve a person’s right to representation as guaranteed by the sixth amendment to the Constitution;

 

(2)the term “criminally derived property” means any property constituting, or derived from, proceeds obtained from a criminal offense; and

 

(3)the terms “specified unlawful activity” and “proceeds” shall have the meaning given those terms in section 1956 of this title.

 

(Added Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1352(a), Oct. 27, 1986100 Stat. 3207–21; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §§6182, 6184, 6469(a)(2), Nov. 18, 1988102 Stat. 4354, 4377; Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, §§1526(b), 1527(b), Oct. 28, 1992106 Stat. 4065Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330020, Sept. 13, 1994108 Stat. 2149Pub. L. 103–325, title IV, §413(c)(2), Sept. 23, 1994108 Stat. 2255Pub. L. 109–177, title IV, §403(c)(2), Mar. 9, 2006120 Stat. 243Pub. L. 111–21, §2(f)(2), May 20, 2009123 Stat. 1618Pub. L. 112–186, §4(b)(2), Oct. 5, 2012126 Stat. 1429.)

 

[1] (Added Pub. L. 97–248, title III, § 351(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 640.)